Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Kalu U. E. Ogbureke .

400 pages . 
Open Access .

Human cancers of the oral and oropharyngeal areas have since emerged as significant public health challenge globally, but particularly so in countries of the Southeast Asia.
Although the oral cavity and oropharynx are as easily accessible as is the population at risk, early diagnosis has been painfully slow when compared to the enhanced early detection of cancers of the breast, colon, prostate, and melanoma. As a result, the mortality rate from oral cancer for the past four decades has remained high, at over 50%, in spite of advances in treatment modalities. This contrasts with a considerable decrease in mortality rates for cancers of the breast, colon, prostate, and melanoma during the same period. In spite of increased diligence on the part of the clinicians in their examination of patients at risk, early diagnosis of oral cancer continues to be impeded and elusive because of the persistence of outdated paradigms, and the lack of an easily available diagnostic adjunct. This is particularly evident in the persistent
challenge of deciphering the malignant potentials of the various oral premalignant lesions (OPLs). In order to increase the early detection of oral cancer with the attendant increase in survival rates, and OPLs with the likelihood of transition to oral cancer, there is the need to identify diagnostic screening modalities that accurately predict the malignant potentials of OPLs.
This book is an attempt to provide a comprehensive, yet reference-friendly, update encompassing the spectrum of etiologic/risk factors, current clinical diagnostic tools, management philosophies, and molecular biomarkers and progression indicators of oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Accordingly, the scope has necessitated the painstaking contributions, from notable experts drawn from across the globe, of detailed reviews and nascent research reports on aspects of the subject matter.
For convenience of reference, the book has been divided into three sections: Section I (Epidemiology and Risk Factors; Chapters 1-8) covers various aspects and perspectives of the Epidemiology and Etiologic/risk factors of oral and oropharyngeal cancers, while Section II (Diagnosis and Management; Chapters 9-15) provides an update of the various diagnostic and treatment modalities. Finally, Section III (Molecular Pathogenesis; Chapters 16-20) covers highlights on selected but recent advances on the molecular processes involved in the biology of oral cancer as well as their potential significance in diagnosis, management, and therapeutic approaches to oral cancer.

Kalu U. E. Ogbureke, BDS, MSc, DMSc, JD, FDSRCS, FDSRCPS(G), FRCPath
College of Dental Medicine
Georgia Health Sciences University



Part 1 Epidemiology and Risk Factors 1

1 Overview of Oral Cancer 3 Kalu U. E. Ogbureke and Christopher Bingham

 2 Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Clinical Aspects 21 Nicolás Bolesina, Fabián L. Femopase, Silvia A. López de Blanc, Rosana A. Morelatto and María Alicia Olmos

 3 Oral Cancer – An Overview 47 Raghu Radhakrishnan, Bijayata Shrestha and Dipshikha Bajracharya

4 A Literature Analysis of the Risk Factors for Oral Cancer 65 Shih-An Liu

 5 Oral Cancer and Potentially Cancerous Lesions – Early Detection and Diagnosis 79 C. S. Farah, P. J. Ford, K. Allen, A. Vu and M. J. McCullough

 6 Environmental Factors Identified in the Etiology of Oral Cancers in Taiwan 107 Chi-Ting Chiang, Tsun-Kuo Chang, Ie-Bin Lian, Che-Chun Su, Kuo-Yang Tsai and Yaw-Huei Hwang

 7 The Changing Aetiology of Oral Cancer and the Role of Novel Biomarkers to Aid in Early Diagnosis 129 Michael J. McCullough, Gareema Prasad, Sarah Zhao and Camile S. Farah

 8 p53 Mutation and Multiple Primary Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas 149 Nur Mohammad Monsur Hassan, Mitsuhiro Tada, Jun-ichi Hamada, Masanobu Shindoh, Haruhiko Kashiwazaki, Yutaka Yamazaki, Yuichi Ashikaga, Tetsuya Moriuchi, Nobuo Inoue and Akira Sasaki

Part 2 Diagnosis and Management .

 9 Timing of Oral Cancer Diagnosis: Implications for Prognosis and Survival 173 Pablo Varela Centelles, Juan Manuel Seoane-Romero, Iria Gómez, Pedro Diz-Dios, Nilce Santos de Melo and Juan Seoane

 10 Diagnostic Aids in Oral Cancer Screening 189 Pegah Mosannen Mozafari, Zahra Delavarian and Nooshin Mohtasham

 11 Microsurgical Reconstruction of the Oral Cavity and Oropharynx After Cancer Ablation 209
Mônica Lúcia Rodrigues, Hugo Fontan Köhler and Luiz Paulo Kowalski

 12 Salivary Diagnostics in Oral Cancer 227 S. Gokul

 13 Blood Groups and Oral Lesions Diagnostics 249 Carlos Campi, Livia Escovich, Liliana Racca, Amelia Racca, Carlos Cotorruelo and Claudia Biondi

 14 Management of Early-Stage Tongue Cancer 267 Kiyoto Shiga, Katsunori Katagiri, Ayako Nakanome, Takenori Ogawa and Toshimitsu Kobayashi

 15 Functional Biomarkers of Oral Cancer 277 Masumi Tsuda and Yusuke Ohba

Part 3 Molecular Pathogenesis .

 16 Epigenetic Profiling of Oral Cancer 297 A. Santoro, G. Pannone, S. Papagerakis, R. Serpico, A. Guida, L. Lo Muzio and P. Bufo

 17 Model of Chromosomal Instability in Oral Carcinogenesis and Progression 327 Walter Giaretti

 18 Expression of Metallothionein in Oral Cancer 339 Dziegiel Piotr, Pula Bartosz and Podhorska-Okolow Marzena

 19 Reduced Expression of Syndecan-1 in Oral Cancer 359 Takashi Muramatsu

 20 Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions in Oral Cancer Metastasis 373 Silvana Papagerakis and Giuseppe Pannone

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