Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Bernhard Resch . 

246 pages . 
Open Access . 

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most significant cause of acute respiratory tract infections in infants and young children throughout the world. The World Health Organization estimates that one third of the 12.2 million annual deaths in children below 5 years are the result of acute infections of the respiratory tract, with RSV, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae as the predominant pathogens Severity of RSV outbreaks varies from year to year, perhaps in part because of a variation in circulating strains. Mortality associated with primary RSV infection in otherwise healthy children is estimated to be 0.005 to 0.02 percent, and is approximately 1 to 3 percent among hospitalized children. Repeated RSV infections are common in all age groups. RSV usually spreads by close contact with infected people or their infectious secretions, which tend to be profuse, especially in young children. RSV in nasal secretions of acutely infected infants remains infectious on countertops for more than 6 hours and on cloth and paper tissue for 30 minutes. 
Risk factors for acquisition of RSV bronchiolitis in infants and young children include birth between April and the end of September, day-care attendance, lack of breast-feeding, residence in crowded homes, multiple births, and presence of siblings. Risk factors associated with increased severity of RSV infection in healthy infants and children include male gender, low socioeconomic status, crowded living conditions, indoor smoke pollution, malnutrition, a family history of asthma or atopy, and lower cord serum RSV antibody titers. Children born with certain medical conditions including prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital heart disease, neuromuscular impairment, cystic fibrosis, and immune deficiency syndromes have consistently been found to be at increased risk for severe RSV disease compared with children without these conditions and have been the primary risk groups considered for RSV prophylaxis with the humanized monoclonal antibody palivizumab. Another phenomenon following early RSV lower respiratory tract infection includes recurrent episodes of wheezing mimicking early childhood asthma during childhood. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms appears to diminish over the first years of life, but recent studies observed either reactive airway disease or lung function abnormality even until adolescence.
In this online access book on human RSV infections several distinguished authors contribute their experience on RSV. The book is divided in three sections representing a total of ten chapters. A major focus lies on the fascinating pathophysiology of RSV demonstrating recent and actual work on different mechanisms involved in the complex pathogenesis of the virus. A second section elucidates epidemiologic and diagnostic aspects of RSV infection covering a more clinical view of RSV disease. At last, treatment modalities including the search for a vaccine that is still not in sight are discussed and conclude this book, thus, drawing a bow that reaches from experimental models of RSV related lung disease over clinical aspects of disease to the latest news of therapeutic and prophylactic approaches to human RSV infection.

Bernhard Resch, MD
Professor of Pediatrics
Research Unit for Neonatal Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology
Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics
Medical University of Graz


Part 1 of the Textbook : Pathophysiology of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection .

1 MHC Class I Ligands and Epitopes in HRSV Infection 3 Daniel López

 2 RSV Induced Changes in miRNA Expression in Lung 19 Shirley R. Bruce and Joseph L. Alcorn

 3 Animal Models of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Pathogenesis and Vaccine Development: Opportunities and Future Directions 43 Amelia R. Woolums, Sujin Lee and Martin L. Moore

 4 Structural and Functional Aspects of the Small Hydrophobic (SH) Protein in the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus 75 Siok Wan Gan and Jaume Torres

 5 Cellular and Molecular Characteristics of RSV-Induced Disease in Humans 97 Olivier Touzelet and Ultan F. Power

 6 Detection of Bacteriophage in Droplets 123 Phillipa Perrott and Megan Hargreaves

Part 2 of the Textbook : Epidemiologic and Diagnostic Aspects of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection .

 7 Life-Threatening RSV Infections in Children 147 Martin C.J. Kneyber

 8 Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections 161 Javed Akhter and Sameera Al Johani

Part 3 of the Textbook : Treatment and Prophylaxis of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease .

 9 Anti-Respiratory Syncytial Virus Agents from Phytomedicine 179 Damian Chukwu Odimegwu, Thomas Grunwald and Charles Okechukwu Esimone

 10 Treatment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection: Past, Present and Future 197 Dirk Roymans and Anil Koul

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Published by: Unknown - Tuesday, May 28, 2013


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