Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Mark B. Zimering .

454 pages .
Open Access .

Type 2 diabetes mellitus affects nearly 120 million persons worldwide- and according to the World Health Organization this number is expected to double by the year 2030.
Owing to a rapidly increasing disease prevalence- the medical, social and economic burdens associated with the microvascular and macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes are likely to increase dramatically in the coming decades. In this volume, leading contributors to the field review the pathogenesis, treatment and management of type 2 diabetes and its complications. They provide invaluable insight and share their discoveries about potentially important new techniques for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diabetic complications.
Neuropathy is the most common microvascular complication in diabetes. In the Section on Diabetic Neuropathy, Bjorkman et al. provide evidence for how a novel technique known as ‘targeted plasticity’ may be useful for stimulating recovery of somatosensory function in diabetic neuropathy affecting the hand. Watanabe and co-workers describe the use of ultrasound of peripheral nerve as a potentially promising new modality for the evaluation of patients having distal polyneuropathy. Thomsen et al summarize the differences in nerve fiber morphology between large vs small fiber neuropathy.
Type 2 diabetes is associated with a two-four- fold increased risk for cardiovascular disease. In the section Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease, Hermans et al. review the evidence supporting atherogenic dyslipidemia as a potentially important component of residual vascular risk in diabetes. Stasko et al. treat the important topic of diabetes and fibrinolysis, including evidence for plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 as a predictor of cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes. Yaturu and Mousa discuss evidence for aspirin resistance in diabetes. Ojji reviews the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy focusing on the unique contribution of diastolic dysfunction to heart failure in diabetes. Pappone et al summarize the results of a large prospective observational study in which type 2 diabetes was associated with an increased risk for progression from paroxysmal to persistent atrial fibrillation. Silent ischemia is highlighted in an excellent chapter by Emilia and Vlad Babes. Finally, Arce-Esquivel and colleagues review the beneficial effects of exercise on endothelial function.
Hypertension frequently complicates type 2 diabetes contributing to a substantially increased risk for cardiovascular disease or progression of nephropathy. In three excellent chapters written by Carella, Swislocki & Siegel, and Masuo & Lambert the latest advances in treatment of hypertension in type 2 diabetes are summarized.

Ertugrul et al review treatment advances in diabetic nephropathy. MacFarlane and colleagues summarize the management of chronic anemia in diabetic nephropathy.
Martinez et al describe a rat model which mimics certain key features of human diabetic nephropathy which may be useful for improving understanding and screening potential treatments to prevent this debilitating microvascular complication.
Diabetes is a multi-systemic disease which can affect many different target organs. In a chapter by Nakajima et al, liver, muscle and lung involvement in diabetes are reviewed with a focus on the association between diabetes and restrictive lung disease.
Diana Yu and Jamal Mohammad summarize evidence supporting an association between type 2 diabetes and an increased risk for certain types of cancer affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Kamoi summarizes evidence supporting the role for high blood pressure and techniques for improving the predictive value of high blood pressure as an important mediator of microvascular and macrovascular complications in diabetes.
Finally, three excellent chapters by Begum et al, Perez-Martinez et al, and Huang & Liu informatively review aspects of the use of medicinal plants, nutritional therapy and the pharmacogenetics of anti-diabetic drugs in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Mark B. Zimering, MD, PhD
Chief, Endocrinology
Veterans Affairs New Jersey Healthcare System
East Orange, New Jersey,
Associate Professor of Medicine
University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey/
Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey,



Part 1 Diabetic Neuropathy .

1 New Treatment Strategies in Diabetic Neuropathy 3 Anders Björkman, Niels Thomsen and Lars Dahlin

 2 Sonographic Imaging of the Peripheral Nerves in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 15 Tsuneo Watanabe, Shin-ichi Kawachi and Toshio Matsuoka

 3 Diabetic Neuropathy – Nerve Morphology in the Upper Extremity 33 Niels Thomsen, Anders Bjorkman and Lars B. Dahlin

Part 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease .

 4 Residual Vascular Risk in T2DM: The Next Frontier 45 Michel P. Hermans, Sylvie A. Ahn and Michel F. Rousseau

 5 Type 2 Diabetes and Fibrinolysis 67 Ján Staško, Peter Chudý, Daniela Kotuličová, Peter Galajda, Marián Mokáň and Peter Kubisz

 6 Diabetes and Aspirin Resistance 91 Subhashini Yaturu and Shaker Mousa

 7 Diabetic Cardiomyopathy 105 Dike Bevis Ojji

 8 AF and Diabetes Prognosis and Predictors 119 Carlo Pappone, Francesca Zuffada and Vincenzo Santinelli

 9 Detection of Silent Ischemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes 129 Babes Elena Emilia and Babes Victor Vlad

 10 Effects of Type 2 Diabetes on Arterial Endothelium 155 Arturo A. Arce-Esquivel, Aaron K. Bunker and M. Harold Laughlin

Part 3 Hypertension, Nephropathy and Diabetes .

 11 Antihypertensive Treatment in Type 2 Diabetic Patients 181 Angelo Michele Carella

 12 Managing Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes 207 Arthur L.M. Swislocki and David Siegel

 13 Treatments for Hypertension in Type 2 Diabetes-Non-Pharmacological and Pharmacological Measurements 233 Kazuko Masuo and Gavin W. Lambert

 14 Diabetic Nephropathy; Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Approaches 263 Derun Taner Ertugrul, Emre Tutal and Siren Sezer

 15 Anemia of Chronic Kidney Disease in Diabetic Patients: Pathophysiologic Insights and Implications of Recent Clinical Trials 273 Victoria Forte, Miriam Kim, George Steuber, Salma Asad and Samy I. McFarlane

 16 A Diachronic Study of Diabetic Nephropathy in Two Autochthonous Lines of Rats to Understand Diabetic Chronic Complications 283 Juan Carlos Picena, Silvana Marisa Montenegro, Alberto Enrique D´Ottavio, María Cristina Tarrés and Stella Maris Martínez

Part 4 Diverse Organ Involvement/Dysfunction in Diabetes .

 17 Pathogenic Features of Insulin Resistance and Critical Organ Damage in the Liver, Muscle and Lung 303 Kei Nakajima, Toshitaka Muneyuki, Masafumi Siato and Masafumi Kakei

 18 Implications of Type II Diabetes Mellitus on Gastrointestinal Cancers 323 Diana H. Yu and M. Mazen Jamal

 19 Prevention for Micro- and Macro-Vascular Complications in Diabetic Patients 337 Kyuzi Kamoi

Part 5 Aspects of the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes .

 20 Emerging Challenge of Type 2 Diabetes: Prospects of Medicinal Plants 375 Rokeya Begum, Mosihuzzaman M, Azad Khan AK, Nilufar Nahar and Ali Liaquat

 21 Nutritional Therapy in Diabetes: Mediterranean Diet 391 Pablo Pérez-Martínez, Antonio García-Ríos, Javier Delgado-Lista, Francisco Pérez-Jiménez and José López-Miranda

 22 Pharmacogenetics for T2DM and Anti-Diabetic Drugs 413 Qiong Huang and Zhao-qian Liu

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Published by: Unknown - Sunday, May 5, 2013


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