Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Jose A. Andrades .

866 pages .
Open Access .

Few events in science have captured the same level of sustained interest and imagination of the nonscientific community as Stem Cells, Tissue Engineering, and Regenerative Medicine. Each of us, scientist or not, is related to someone who has diabetes, arthritis, cardiac failure, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, or other debilitating diseases. The fundamental concept of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine is appealing to scientists, physicians, and lay people alike: to heal tissue or organ defects that the current medical practice deems difficult or impossible to cure.
The term “stem cell” appeared in the scientific literature as early as 1868 in the work of the eminent German biologist Ernst Haeckel. Haeckel, a supporter of Darwinian evolution, developed a number of phylogenetic trees to represent the evolution of organisms from common ancestors and called these trees Stammbaume (“stem trees”). In this context, he used the term Stammzelle (“stem cell”) to describe the ancestor unicellular organism from which he presumed all multicellular organisms evolved. In 1868, Ernst Neumann suggested that hematopoiesis occurs in bone marrow. He used the term “stem cell” to refer to the common precursor of the blood system in 1912. The debate about the existence of a common hematopoietic stem cell continued for several decades until definitive evidence was provided in 1961 by two Canadian scientists, James Till and Ernest McCulloch. In a quite astonishing discovery, Kazutoshi Takahashi and Shinya Yamanaka of Kyoto University in Japan in 2006 for the first time turned adult mouse skin fibroblast cells into pluripotent cells, and these are now referred to as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. The discovery of iPS cells turned the field of nuclear reprogramming upside down. This work was extended and further confirmed by several groups that generated iPS cells from individuals with various neurodegenerative diseases, raising the hope of cell replacement therapy and making personalized medicine a reality. Although Yamanaka’s technologies can generate living animals, we do not know the molecular mechanisms underlying these two strategies. The potential of iPS cell technology in biology and medicine is enormous; however, it is still in its infancy, and there are many challenges to overcome before various applications can be used successfully.
The term “tissue engineering” was first used by Eugene Bell of MIT in 1984, and later was also used extensively by Wolter and Meyer in 1984. Tissue engineering combines cells, engineering, and materials methods with suitable biochemical and physiochemical factors to improve or replace biologic functions. In other words, it deals with the repair or replacement of portions of or whole tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendon, blood vessels, bladder, skin, and artificial organs. According to Robert Langer and Joseph Vacanti, it “applies the principles of engineering and life sciences toward the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain, or improve tissue function or a whole organ.” Powerful developments in the multidisciplinary field of tissue engineering have yielded a novel set of tissue replacement parts and implementation strategies. Scientific advances in biomaterials, stem cells, growth and differentiation factors, and biomimetic environments have created unique opportunities to fabricate tissues in the laboratory from combinations of engineered extracellular matrices (scaffolds), cells, and biologically active molecules.

Regenerative medicine is a new branch of medicine that attempts to change the course of chronic disease, in many instances regenerating failing organ systems lost due to age, disease, damage, or congenital defects. The term “regenerative medicine” was first referred to in 1992 by Leland Kaiser and then popularly used by William Haselstine of Human Genome Sciences. The term regenerative medicine is often used synonymously with tissue engineering, although those involved in regenerative medicine place more emphasis on the use of stem cells to treat diseases using cell therapies or transplantation methods. This field holds the promise of regenerating damaged tissues and organs in the body by stimulating previously irreparable organs to heal themselves. Regenerative medicine also empowers scientists to grow tissues and organs in the laboratory and safely implant them when the body cannot heal itself. This area is rapidly becoming one of the most promising treatment options for patients suffering from tissue failure.
The selected articles of this book of Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering fairly reflect the state of the art of these two disciplines at this time as well as their therapeutic application.
It covers numerous topics, such as stem cells, cell culture, polymer synthesis, novel biomaterials, drug delivery, therapeutics, and the creation of tissues and organs.
This text consists of 33 chapters, grouped into 4 sections. Most of the chapters are written by experts in the field from academia and industry. The goal is to have this book serve as a reference for graduate students, post-docs, teachers, scientists and physicians, and as an explanatory analysis for executives in biotech and pharmaceutical companies. I hope that this compendium is of great benefit to you in your work, and also will provide a prologue to the field for both newcomers and those already active in the field.
Many people have contributed to making our involvement in this project possible. We are extremely thankful to all of the contributors to this book, without whose commitment this book would not have been possible. Many people have had a hand in the preparation of this book. We thank our readers, who have made our hours putting together this volume worth it. We are indebted to the staff of INTECH open science, and in particular Danijela Duric for her generosity in giving time and effort throughout the editing of this book. This book is dedicated to our patients and to the memory of all experimental animals who contribute daily with their donation to develop of the science we make.

José A. Andrades
University of Málaga



Section 1 Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine .

 1 Placenta-Derived Stem Cells as a Source for Treatment of Lung and Liver Disease in Cystic Fibrosis 3 Annalucia Carbone, Stefano Castellani, Valentina Paracchini, Sante Di Gioia, Carla Colombo and Massimo Conese

 2 Isolation of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells: Cellular Composition is Technique-Dependent 37 Hideki Agata

 3 The ASC: Critical Participants in Paracrine-Mediated Tissue Health and Function 51 Patricia Zuk

 4 Dental-Related Stem Cells and Their Potential in Regenerative Medicine 95 Razieh Karamzadeh and Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

 5 Induce Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells by Co-Culture System 117 Fengming Yue, Sakiko Shirasawa, Hinako Ichikawa, Susumu Yoshie, Akimi Mogi, Shoko Masuda, Mika Nagai, Tadayuki Yokohama, Tomotsune Daihachiro and Katsunori Sasaki

 6 Oral and Maxillofacial Tissue Engineering with Adipose- Derived Stem Cells 141 Morikuni Tobita and Hiroshi Mizuno

 7 Is the Articular Cartilage Regeneration Approachable Through Mesenchymal Stem Cells Therapies? 155 José M. López-Puerta, Plácido Zamora-Navas, Silvia Claros, Gustavo A. Rico-Llanos, Inés Avedillo, José A. Andrades and José Becerra

 8 Adipose Derived Stem Cells: Current State of the Art and Prospective Role in Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering 179 Vincenzo Vindigni, Giorgio Giatsidis, Francesco Reho , Erica Dalla Venezia , Marco Mammana and Bassetto Franco

 9 Regulatory Issues in the Therapeutic Use of Stem Cells 203 Bridget M. Deasy, Jordan E. Anderson and Shannon Zelina

Section 2 Scaffolds and Matrices .

 10 The Evolution of Three-Dimensional Cell Cultures Towards Unimpeded Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering 221 Aleksandar Evangelatov and Roumen Pankov

 11 Naturally Derived Biomaterials: Preparation and Application 247 Tran Le Bao Ha, To Minh Quan, Doan Nguyen Vu and Do Minh Si

 12 Biomaterials for Cardiac Tissue Engineering 275 M. Arnal-Pastor, J. C. Chachques, M. Monleón Pradas and A. Vallés- Lluch

 13 Treatment of Bone Defects — Allogenic Platelet Gel and Autologous Bone Technique 325 Dragica Smrke, Primož Rožman, Matjaž Veselko and Borut Gubina

 14 Skeletal Muscle Ventricles (SMVs) and Biomechanical Hearts (BMHs) with a Self-Endothelializing Titanized Blood Contacting Surface 341 Norbert W. Guldner, Peter Klapproth, Hangörg Zimmermann and Hans- H. Sievers

 15 Cartilage Tissue Engineering: The Role of Extracellular Matrix (ECM) and Novel Strategies 365 Zaira Y. García-Carvajal, David Garciadiego-Cázares, Carmen Parra- Cid, Rocío Aguilar-Gaytán, Cristina Velasquillo , Clemente Ibarra and Javier S. Castro Carmona

 16 Fabrication of PGA/PLA Scaffold with the Shape of Human Nose 399 Qiong Li, Lu Zhang, Guangdong Zhou, Wei Liu and Yilin Cao

Section 3 Regeneration of Tissues and Organs .

 17 Bone Marrow–Derived Cells Regenerate Structural andFunctional Lower Urinary Tracts 411  Tetsuya Imamura, Osamu Ishizuka and Osamu Nishizawa

 18 Corneal Endothelial Tissue Bioengineering Using Cultured Human Corneal Endothelial Precursor Cells 429 Tatsuya Mimura, Seiichi Yokoo and Satoru Yamagami

 19 Angiogenesis — The Key to Regeneration 453 Susanne Jung and Johannes Kleinheinz

 20 Engineering of Inflammation-Resistant Osteochondral Cells 475 Jan O. Gordeladze, Janne E. Reseland, Tommy A. Karlsen, Rune B. Jakobsen, Astrid K. Stunes, Unni Syversen, Lars Engebretsen, Ståle P. Lyngstadaas and Christian Jorgensen

 21 Tissue Engineered Animal Sparing Models for the Study of Joint and Muscle Diseases 509 Ali Mobasheri and Mark Lewis

 22 Importance of Extracellular Environment for Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering of Cartilagious Tissue 543 Shigeru Kobayashi

 23 Potential of Different Tissue Engineering Strategies in the Bladder Reconstruction 573 Sara Bouhout, Alexandre Rousseau, Stéphane Chabaud, Amélie Morissette and Stéphane Bolduc

 24 Advances in Bone Tissue Engineering 599 Chao Le Meng Bao, Erin Y.L. Teo, Mark S.K. Chong, Yuchun Liu, Mahesh Choolani and Jerry K.Y. Chan

 25 Bone Engineering: A Matter of Cells, Growth Factors and Biomaterials 615 José A. Andrades, Lucía Narváez-Ledesma, Luna Cerón-Torres, Anyith P. Cruz-Amaya, Daniel López-Guillén, M. Laura Mesa- Almagro and José A. Moreno-Moreno

 26 Adaptation and Evolution in a Gravitational Environment — A Theoretical Framework for the Limited Re-Generative Post- Natal Time Window of the Heart in Higher Vertebrates 643 Michele Mario Ciulla, Gianluca Lorenzo Perrucci and Fabio Magrini

 27 Skeletal Muscle Regeneration for Clinical Application 679 Fahd Azzabi Zouraq, Meline Stölting and Daniel Eberli

 28 Delivery Systems and Role of Growth Factors for Alveolar Bone Regeneration in Dentistry 713 Stefano Sivolella, Marleen De Biagi, Giulia Brunello, Sara Ricci, Drazen Tadic, Christiane Marinc, Diego Lops, Letizia Ferroni, Chiara Gardin, Eriberto Bressan and Barbara Zavan

Section 4 Clinical Perspective of Tissue Engineering and Cell-BasedTherapies .

 29 Regenerative Medicine for Neurological Diseases with the Use of Electrical Stimulation 745 Masahiro Kameda

 30 Pigmented Skin Models: Understand the Mechanisms of Melanocytes 759 Isabelle Gendreau, Laetitia Angers, Jessica Jean and Roxane Pouliot

 31 Cell Therapy and Muscle Regeneration: Skeletal Myogenic Differentiation of Urine-Derived Stem Cells for Potential Use in Treatment of Urinary Incontinence 787 Yingai Shi, YuLin Li, JinYu Liu and Yuanyuan Zhang

 32 Autologous Muscular Treatment Options for Endstage Heart Failure — A Critical Appraisal of the Dynamic Cardiomyoplasty (DCMP) vs. a New Concept of a Closed-Loop Controlled DCMP (CLC-DCMP) 795 Norbert W. Guldner, Peter Klapproth and Hans-H. Sievers

 33 Complications of Post-Transplant Immunosuppression 831 Raffaele Girlanda

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Published by: Unknown - Thursday, May 23, 2013


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