Open Access Medical Books


Edited by Dongqing Wang .

Open Access .
76 pages .

Computed Tomography (CT) was first introduced as a medical device in the 1970’s, and has since become a ubiquitous imaging tool. Recent technical advances including faster scan times, improved spatial resolution, and advanced multi-planar reconstruction techniques have led to the application of CT for the evaluation of numerous anatomic abnormalities and disease processes. Approximately 3 million CT scans were performed annually in the United States in 1980, but by 2008 that number had grown to 67 million and it continues to rise. [1] Over twothirds of all medical radiation is attributable to CT, with 75% of CT scans being performed in the hospital setting. Approximately 40% of CT scans are of the head/neck/spine, 10% of the chest, 47% of the abdomen/pelvis, and the remainder of the extremities or as a procedural tool. [2, 3, 4] Increasing awareness of medical radiation has paralleled the increase in CT usage with permeation into the popular and scientific press. This has resulted in an emphasis by several organizations on reducing overall medical radiation exposure without compromising diagnostic accuracy and usefulness. Despite this increased awareness and attention, the significance of the increased radiation exposure to the population caused by CT remains unclear.
High levels of ionizing radiation exposure are known to increase cancer risk [5, 6, 7] but the data for lower doses of radiation, like those seen during medical imaging (including CT), is less clear and remains controversial. [8, 9, 10] Therefore, in the absence of clarity on this topic, the American College of Radiology (ACR), Health Physics Society (HPS) and other interested organizations have adopted the principles of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA), Image Gently in pediatrics and Image Wisely in adults. The common theme of all of these guidelines is to advise physicians to limit radiation exposure to only what is medically necessary.......



 1 Computed Tomography in Abdominal Imaging: How to Gain Maximum Diagnostic Information at the Lowest Radiation Dose 1 Kristie M. Guite, J. Louis Hinshaw and Fred T. Lee Jr.

 2 Molecular Imaging 15 Fathinul Fikri Ahmad Saad, Abdul Jalil Nordin, Hishar Hassan, Cheah Yoke Kqueen and W.F.E Lau

 3 MEDIMED Shared Regional PACS Center — Case Study 43 Karel Slavicek, Michal Javornik and Otto Dostal

 4 Development of Articulation Simulation System Using Vocal Tract Model 63 Y.I. Sumita, K. Inohara, Sakurai Rie, M. Hattori, S. Ino, T. Ifukube and H. Taniguchi

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Published by: Unknown - Thursday, May 16, 2013


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