Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Imtiaz A. Chaudhry .

264 pages . 
Open Access .

Since ocular infections are one of the most frequent occurrences in ophthalmology, the treatment for these infections must be fast, precise and effective. In order to address this goal, it is important to identify and characterize the culprit microorganisms involved in the pathogenesis of ocular infections. Clinical diagnosis of ocular infections can be confirmed by several techniques based on microbiological test of ocular samples. Some of these techniques include classic microbiological testing in which it is necessary to isolate microorganisms to characterize them by biochemical analysis which require significant resources and timing.
Molecular biology techniques on the other hand, such as PCR, real time PCR, microarrays and aptamers (e.g. SOMAmers) can offer the results in a shorter period of time, while keeping a much higher sensitivity and specificity. Recently, mass spectrometry approach has dramatically changed the microbiological field. Some of the advantages of microbiological identification by mass spectrometry include: lack of need for culture and isolation of the microorganisms.
Further, fastidious microorganisms can be identified without lengthy wait for their growth. High sensitivity and accuracy for the microorganism identification results in a reduction of sample amount required. And resistance markers and resistance profile can be determined at the same time of identification analysis. In summary, the evolution of microbiological identification methods has improved treatments that impact in the prognosis of ocular infection, reducing complications and avoiding blindness cases, and as a consequence life quality of patients will be better. In the chapter, “Diagnostics Methods in Ocular Infections:
From Microorganism Culture to Molecular Methods,” Drs. Manuel, Mariana, Antonio, Luz, Carolina, Gustavo, Aurora and Herlinda, discuss current conventional methods for microorganisms identification by the use of cultures, isolation and phenotypic characteristics along-with endpoint PCR, real-time PCR.
Infective conjunctivitis can be acute or chronic and can be caused by several bacterial and viral pathogens. Bacterial conjunctivitis is a relatively common infection and affects all people, although a higher incidence is seen in infants, school children and the elderly. Bacterial conjunctivitis has a higher prevalence in children, and although its incidence is continuing to decrease in developing nations, periodic rises in incidence are seen during the monsoon seasons in many countries such as Bangladesh, and thus, bacterial conjunctivitis is the most common cause of infective conjunctivitis in developing nations. In the developed world, acute infectious conjunctivitis is a common presentation in the primary care setting and many general practitioners may find it difficult to differentiate between bacterial and viral conjunctivitis. The uncertainty of the pathogenic cause of acute conjunctivitis has led to the routine practice of prescribing a broad spectrum antibiotic topically even though the pathogen has not been proved to be bacterial in nature. A diagnosis of conjunctivitis is usually made on the basis of a clinical history and examination by the general practitioner since conjunctivitis is often a self limiting illness and the antibiotics currently used have a good spectrum of pathogen coverage. Swabs and cultures may be indicated in vital situations where a correct diagnosis may be necessary to rule out more serious causes and medical emergencies that would require hospital admission. Such cases may include bacterial keratitis. Hyperacute bacterial conjunctivitis is commonly seen in patients affected with N. Gonorrhoea. The onset is often rapid with an exaggerated form of conjunctival injection, chemosis and copious purulent discharge. Prompt treatment is essential to prevent complications. Chronic bacterial conjunctivitis, ie, red eye with purulent discharge persisting for longer than a few weeks, is generally caused by Chlamydia trachomatis or may be associated with dacryocystitis. 
Bacterial keratitis is a well known but rare complication of bacterial conjunctivitis. Herpes simplex conjunctivitis is due to a viral pathogens symptoms of which may include a red eye, photophobia, eye pain and mucoid discharge. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus causes shingles of the opthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve, which innervates the cornea and the tip of the nose. It begins with unilateral neuralgia, followed by a vesicular rash in the distribution of nerve. Once spread to the eye, it may lead to an extremely painful conjunctivitis. Neonatal Conjunctivitis also known as ophthalmia neonatorum is inflammation of the conjunctiva occurring in the first month of life and is caused by a number of different pathogens that may include bacteria, viruses and chemical agents. In recent times prophylaxis has led to decreased morbidity in the developed world. In their chapter, “Infective Conjunctivitis - its Pathogenesis, Management and Complications,” Drs. Haq, Wardak and Kraskian describe various causes of infectious conjunctivitis along with its treatment modalities. The authors emphasize that the general practitioners must remain vigilant when diagnosing viral from bacterial conjunctivitis and try to ensure that patient education of the condition is at an optimum level to prevent spread....

Imtiaz A. Chaudhry, MD PhD FACS
Houston Oculoplastics Associates
Memorial Hermann Medical Plaza
Texas Medical Center
Houston, Texas,
United States of America



 1 Diagnostics Methods in Ocular Infections−From Microorganism Culture to Molecular Methods 1 Victor Manuel Bautista-de Lucio, Mariana Ortiz-Casas, Luis Antonio Bautista-Hernández, Nadia Luz López-Espinosa, Carolina Gaona- Juárez, Ángel Gustavo Salas-Lais, Dulce Aurora Frausto-del Río and Herlinda Mejía-López

 2 Infective Conjunctivitis – Its Pathogenesis, Management and Complications 21 Adnaan Haq, Haseebullah Wardak and Narbeh Kraskian

 3 Treatments in Infectious and Allergic Conjunctivitis: Is Immunomodulation the Future? 45 Concepcion Santacruz, Sonia Mayra Perez-Tapia, Angel Nava- Castañeda, Sergio Estrada-Parra and Maria C. Jimenez-Martinez

 4 Laboratory in the Diagnosis of Bacterial and Fungal Keratitis 61 Virginia Vanzzini Zago and Ana Lilia Perez-Balbuena

 5 Bacterial Keratitis Infection: A Battle Between Virulence Factors and the Immune Response 85 Atzin Robles-Contreras, Hector Javier Perez-Cano, Alejandro Babayan-Sosa and Oscar Baca-Lozada

 6 Preseptal Cellulitis 107 Monika Fida, Kocinaj Allma, Abazi Flora and Arjeta Grezda

 7 Diagnosis and Management of Orbital Cellulitis 123 Imtiaz A. Chaudhry, Waleed Al-Rashed, Osama Al-Sheikh and Yonca O. Arat

 8 Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Keratitis 147 Ana Lilia Pérez-Balbuena, David Arturo Ancona-Lezama, Lorena Gutiérrez-Sánchez and Virginia Vanzzini-Zago

 9 Endophthalmitis: Experience from a Tertiary Eye Care Center 173 Imtiaz A. Chaudhry, Hassan Al-Dhibi, Waleed Al-Rashed, Hani S. Al- Mezaine, Yonca O. Arat and Wael Abdelghani

 10 Eye Infection Complications in Rheumatic Diseases 213 Brygida Kwiatkowska and Maria Maślińska

 11 Trachoma and Inclusion Conjunctivitis 231 Udo Ubani

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Published by: Unknown - Wednesday, May 8, 2013


  1. Good post! Thanks for sharing this information I appreciate it. God bless!

    Ocular Cancer