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TEXTBOOK : AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS – CURRENT CONCEPTS AND ADVANCES FROM BEDSIDE TO MECHANISTIC INSIGHTS

AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS

Edited by Fang-Ping Huang .

628 pages .
Open Access .
ISBN 978-953-307-653-9 .

Every coin has two sides. The immune system, which protects us from diseases otherwise, can itself directly and evidently cause diseases. Due to failure in the process of tolerance induction and regulation, immune responses, when mistakenly directed against body’s own components (‘self’ antigens), can result in long lasting and recurrent pathological damages to the targeted organs and tissues. These are collectively known as autoimmune disorders, ranging from various organ-specific ones, to those systemic in nature.
The term autoimmunity signifies the presence of self-reactive immune responses with antigen specificity and immunological memory, two key features of the adaptive immunity. Autoimmune responses however, are detected not only in patients with autoimmune diseases, but frequently in healthy individuals as well. The pathological consequence of these reactions depends, often due to lack of certain protective mechanisms, on the type of the responses induced. Some of these autoimmune reactions can even be beneficial; for example, in removing or dumping off various unwanted or aged tissue components. There is also convincing evidence indicating that such responses are involved into fight against tumors, i.e. the ‘altered self’. The basis of autoimmunity is still far from being fully understood, although both genetic and environmental factors are believed to often contribute to the pathogenesis together. A good understanding of the autoimmune mechanisms is therefore important for effective diagnosis, as well as better treatment of many autoimmune
diseases, and even further beyond.
In this book, thanks to many experts in the field who have made their valuable contributions as authors, updated information is gathered on various autoimmune disorders. These include some of the most classical and unique disease phenotypes, such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjogren syndrome, Sweet syndrome, multiple sclerosis and various other neurological and hematological disorders. Importantly, the book focuses on current advances and new concepts based on cutting-edge findings from both clinical and basic scientific studies. A total of 29 chapters are divided into 5 main sections according to the emphasis of their contents: (I) Disease phenotypes (Chapters 1-7), (II) Diagnostics & prognostics (Chapters 8-11), (III) Therapeutic interventions (Chapters 12-20), (IV) Pathogenesis & underlying mechanisms (Chapters 21-25), and (V) Other conceptual advances & new insights (Chapters 26-29).
The primary aim of this book is to provide most up-to-date information in the 5 defined aspects as stated above, and in the form of Open Access in particular, to be freely available to both clinicians and basic scientists regarding current advances in the areas. The readers are also recommended to read another upcoming book with a closely related theme and title, i.e. “Autoimmune Disorders – Pathogenic Aspects”, edited by Dr Clio Mavragani (ISBN 978-953-308-70-9). I sincerely hope that many of them will find the books useful and inspiring for their future applications in clinical practice and research studies into autoimmunity. Through the editing process, it has been hugely beneficial for me to have the opportunity to learn about the subject in more updated details, and in a systemic way.
I would like to express my sincere gratitude and appreciation to our InTech Publishing Process Manager, Ms Alenka Urbancic, her devoted team, and my associate Dr Susanne Sattler, for their generous support and intellectual input during the editing process. I would also like to thank my family for their constant support and understanding. I dedicate this book respectfully to many of my mentors, particularly Professor Zhong-Ying Shen, Professor Henry HY Wong, Dr Jocelyn W Dow, Dr George BM Lindop, Dr Fiona Miller, Professor Donald Cambell, Professor Laurence C Hunter, Professor David I Stott, Professor Eddy FY Liew, and Professor G Gordon MacPherson. I also acknowledge the generous funding supports received, especially those from the MacFeat Bequest (Glasgow), the Hong Kong Research Grant Committee (Hong Kong), and the Arthritis Research UK (UK). Finally, and specially, I wish to acknowledge the Shantou University Medical College where I received my initial medical education (1977-82), and the Li Ka Shing Academic Foundation which has been generously supporting it, and me in the past.

Fang-Ping Huang
MBBS, MSc, MUA, PhD
Division of Immunology & Inflammation,
Department of Medicine, Imperial College,
Hammersmith Hospital, London,
UK
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CONTENTS : 

Part 1 Autoimmune Disorders - Disease Phenotypes .


 1 Autoimmune Disorders Associated to Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescents 3 Giuseppe d’Annunzio and Chiara Russo, Ramona Tallone and Renata Lorini

 2 Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in Children and Adolescents 27 Erkan Sarı, Abdulbaki Karaoglu and Ediz Yeşilkaya

 3 Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome: Current Pathophysiological, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Advances 41 Christine Delporte, Jason Perret and Muhammad S. Soyfoo

 4 Changing Spectrum of Chronic Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura: New Face for an Old Disease 67 Indu Sabnani and Patricia Tsang

 5 Autoimmune-Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome/Macrophage Activation Syndrome 79 Maciej Machaczka, Wojciech Sydor, Małgorzata Rucińska, Marta Szostek and Jacek Musiał

 6 Ocular Myasthenia Analysis of Diagnostic and Treatment Options 105 Austin Hake and Henry J. Kaminski

 7 Sweet Syndrome 119 Manuel Ginarte and Jaime Toribio

Part 2 Autoimmune Disorders - Diagnostics & Prognostics .


 8 Validation of Protein Biomarkers to Advance the Management of Autoimmune Disorders 135 David S. Gibson, Sorcha Finnegan, Stephen Pennington, Ji Qiu, Joshua LaBaer, Madeleine E. Rooney and Mark W. Duncan

 9 Relevance of Autoantibodies for the Classification and Pathogenesis of Neurological Diseases 163 Simone Mader, Benjamin Obholzer and Markus Reindl

 10 Preclinical and Predictive Algorithms in Monitoring Patients with Autoimmune Diseases and Their Relatives-at-Risks 191 Sergey Suchkov, Dmitry Kostyushev, Dmitry Gnatenko, Sevindzh Gadzhieva and Mikhail Paltsev

 11 Application of Novel Quantitative Proteomic Technologies to Identify New Serological Biomarkers in Autoimmune Diseases 223 Soyoung Lee, Satoshi Serada, Minoru Fujimoto and Tetsuji Naka

Part 3 Autoimmune Disorders - Therapeutic Interventions .


 12 Application of Monoclonal Antibody Therapies in Autoimmune Diseases 239 Adrienn Angyal, Jozsef Prechl, Gyorgy Nagy and Gabriella Sarmay

 13 The Emerging Role of Monoclonal Antibodies in the Treatmentof Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 255 Ewa Robak and Tadeusz Robak

 14 Treatment of Pediatric-Onset Lupus Nephritis: A New Option of Less Cytotoxic Immunosuppressive Therapy 275 Hiroshi Tanaka and Tadaatsu Imaizumi

 15 Recent Advances in the Treatment of Neurological Autoimmune Disorders 289 Jagat R. Kanwar, Bhasker Sriramoju and Rupinder K. Kanwar

 16 Synthetic Glucocorticoids Modulate Function of Neural Cells: Implications in Autoimmune Neurological Disorders 323 Oscar Gonzalez-Perez, Norma A. Moy-Lopez and Jorge Guzman-Muniz

 17 Intravenous Immunoglobulins in Neurological Diseases: Established and Novel Clinical Applications 337 Konstantina G. Yiannopoulou

 18 Cellular Based Therapies for the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis 355 James Crooks, Guang-Xian Zhang and Bruno Gran

 19 Haematopoietic Cell Transplantation and Immunotherapy for Autoimmune Diseases in Children and Adults 369 Menachem Bitan

 20 Thionamides-Related Vasculitis in Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders: Review of Current Literature and Case Reports 381 Elisabetta L. Romeo, Giuseppina T. Russo, Annalisa Giandalia, Provvidenza Villari, Angela A. Mirto, Mariapaola Cucinotta, Giuseppa Perdichizzi and Domenico Cucinotta

Part 4 Autoimmune Disorders - Pathogenesis & Underlying Mechanisms .


 21 The Ectopic Germinal Centre Response in Autoimmune Disease and Cancer 395 David I. Stott and Donna McIntyre

 22 Myasthenia Gravis: New Insights into the Effect of MuSK Antibodies and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors 433 Anna Rostedt Punga

 23 Vasoactive Neuropeptides in Autoimmune Diseases 455 Ekua W. Brenu, Lotti Tajouri, Donald R. Staines and Sonya M. Marshall-Gradisnik

 24 Antibody-Proteases in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Demyelination and Monitoring Patients with Multiple Sclerosis 477 Dmitry Kostyushev, Dmitry Gnatenko, Mikhail Paltsev, Aleksandr Gabibov and Sergey Suchkov

 25 Role of Fatty Acids in the Resolution of Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases 491 Elena Puertollano, María A. Puertollano, Gerardo Álvarez de Cienfuegos and Manuel A. de Pablo

Part 5 Autoimmune Disorders - Other Conceptual Advances & New Insights .


 26 Autoimmune Disorder and Autism 517 Xiaohong Li and Hua Zou

 27 Chronobiology of and Chronotherapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis 547 Hideto To

 28 Four Aspects of Autoimmunity and How to Regain Tolerance to Self From an Autoimmune Disease Utilizing the Modified Vaccination Technique 569 Arpad Z. Barabas, Chad D. Cole, Arpad D. Barabas, Rene Lafreniere and Donald M. Weir

 29 Parasitic Helminths as Potential Therapeutic Agents Against Autoimmune Disorders 591 Yoshio Osada .



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