Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Bekir Salih and Ömür Çelikbıçak .

358 pages .
Open Access .
ISBN 978-953-51-0127-7 .

Chromatography is the main separation technique used for the analysis of the real samples which have more and more different compounds having similar or completely different chemical and physical properties and also mainly affected each other during the analysis the target compound in the real sample. The development of the chromatography showed enormous race and many sophisticated chromatographic methods were discovered for different analytes related to their volatility, molecular weight, hydrophobicity, specificity to the phases or functional groups of the phases used in the chromatographic techniques. In the past, mainly preparative chromatographic techniques were used but nowadays miniaturized and modern systems which required very low volume of samples such as nano liters and low concentration of the analytes from part per trillion (ppt) to part per million (ppm) are prominently important. To parallel the development, new detection systems were also discovered in order to measure the analytes in the very low volume and with the most desired detection limits.
At the academic side, many researchers know how they find their way to touch suitable method and useful chromatographic techniques to analyze their samples with high accuracy and precision by the proper chromatographic technique and its required tools such as column, phases and detectors. Nevertheless, the people who are working at the industry ask very sophisticated question about the real sample “which compounds and in which level of their concentrations are in the samples?”. To answer this question, there is no way to go out not to touch the chromatographic techniques.
The useful chromatographic technique is the Gas Chromatography for the volatile compounds, both organic and organometallic which having volatility up to 300 oC.
Using capillary column and some convenient detectors around hundreds of compounds having different detector responses could be analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively in the same run.
Today, hyphenated methods including Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) and Gas Chromatography-Atomic Spectrometry have been widely used for the detection and quantification of the organic molecules and also organometallic species.
Especially Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry technique is the best for the identification of the finger prints of the organic molecules and their quantification at trace levels. This hyphenated technique does not need any reference material to identify the organic and organometallic species using chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric detection. Therefore, GC-MS system is a kind of most special and useful system among the other Gas Chromatographic Systems.
In the recent years, 2D Gas Chromatography (GCXGC) was discovered and has been widely used efficiently in today’s Gas Chromatographic studies.
After all these developments in Gas Chromatography and its hyphenated methods, these techniques have been finding many applications in various sample analysis in different real samples such as environmental, biological, foods, drugs, narcotics, plants, soils, sediments and the other samples.
Using the information in the chapters, it may be possible to develop Gas Chromatographic procedures for different compounds in Plant Science, Wine Technology and Toxicology by the readers of the book.

Bekir Salih and Ömür Çelikbıçak
Hacettepe University
Department of Chemistry, Ankara,


Part 1 Plant Science .

 1 Determination of the Chemical Composition of Volatile Oils of Plants Using Superheated Water Extraction with Comprehensive Gas Chromatography- Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry 3 Mustafa Z. Özel

 2 Application of Gas Chromatography in the Analysis of Flavour Compounds in Field Peas 15 Sorayya Azarnia, Joyce I. Boye, Tom Warkentin and Linda Malcolmson

 3 Chemotaxonomic Study Based on the Variation of Quinone Compounds in the Heartwood of Javanese Teak Using GC-MS 31 Ganis Lukmandaru

 4 Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Plant and Insect Surface Compounds: Cuticular Waxes and Terpenoids 39 Beata Szafranek, Monika Paszkiewicz, Marek Gołębiowski and Piotr Stepnowski

 5 Major Volatile Compounds Analysis Produced from Mezcal Fermentation Using Gas Chromatography Equipped Headspace (GC–HS) 73 Melchor Arellano, Anne Gschaedler and Montserrat Alcazar

Part 2 Wine Technology .

 6 Using Odorant Series as an Analytical Tool for the Study of the Biological Ageing of Sherry Wines 91 Luis Zea, María J. Ruiz and Lourdes Moyano

 7 Application of Gas Chromatography on the Evaluation of Grape and Wine Aroma in Atlantic Viticulture (NW Iberian Peninsula) 109 Mar Vilanova and José M. Oliveira

 8 The Aroma of Rojal Red Wines from La Mancha Region – Determination of Key Odorants 147 Eva Sánchez-Palomo, Eva Gómez García-Carpintero, Manuel Ángel Gómez Gallego and Miguel Ángel González Viñas

 9 Application of an Automated Headspace Solid Phase Micro-Extraction for the GC-MS Detection and Quantification of Reductive Sulfur Compounds in Wines 171 Dang-Dung Nguyen, Laura Nicolau and Paul A. Kilmartin

Part 3 Toxicology .

 10 Determination of Volatile Substances in Forensic Samples by Static Headspace Gas Chromatography 197 Ernesto Bernal

 11 A Method Using Gas Chromatography –Mass Spectrometry for the Detection of Mycotoxins from Trichothecene Groups A and B in Grains 225 Breda Jakovac-Strajn and Gabrijela Tavčar-Kalcher

Part 4 The Other Applications .

 12 GC-MS Analysis of Volatile Plant Secondary Metabolites 247 Elena E. Stashenko and Jairo René Martínez

 13 The Qualitative and Quantitative Determinations of Volatile Constituents in Some Herbal Medicines by Gas Chromatography 271 Chantana Aromdee

 14 Designing Novel Functional Food Using Gas Chromatography 285 Constantina Nasopoulou and Ioannis Zabetakis

 15 Study of the Chemical Composition of Essential Oils by Gas Chromatography 307 Ester R. Chamorro, Silvia N. Zambón, Walter G. Morales, Alfredo F. Sequeira and Gustavo A. Velasco

 16 Chiral and Nonchiral GC×GC/TOFMS Analysis of Natural Compounds: The Case of Possible Aggregation Pheromones of Chinese Bark Beetles Ips shangrila and Ips nitidus 325 Michal Hoskovec, Blanka Kalinová and Miloš Knížek .

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Published by: younes younes - Sunday, June 30, 2013


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