Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Mahin Khatami .

Open Access .
408 pages .

In the 19th century, Rudolph Virchow noted that “the signs of inflammation are four; redness and swelling, with heat and pain“. Since this historical observation, a role for inflammation in the induction, progression and manifestation of wide range of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia or major trauma, many allergies such as asthma, emphysema, ocular and skin allergies, or ageassociated chronic diseases such as neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases, and many cancers, has been documented in the literature. However, obscure and fuzzy
understanding on the role that acute and chronic (persistent or subclinical, unresolved) inflammation plays in preventing disease or inducing many potentially interrelated illnesses has slowed down progress in preventing or treating these chronic diseases or cancer. For example, continuous controversies and debates in the literature, on whether inflammation is protective in preventing cancer or it is a risk in carcinogenesis, have been costly for cancer patients, despite the tremendous public investment in war against cancer for over four decades. In recent years, acute inflammation has been defined as an evolutionary inherent property of immune system, possessing 2 biologically opposing arms, ‘Yin’ (apoptosis, growth-arresting, or tumoricidal) and ‘Yang’ (wound healing, growth-promoting or tumorigenic), processes that protect the body against foreign external or internal elements throughout life. Unresolved inflammation has been further suggested as the loss of balance between ‘Yin’ and ‘Yang’ that would lead to altered dynamics of immune responses, expression and co-expression of exaggerated mismatched mediators in the susceptible tissues, creating immunological chaos (‘immune tsunami’) and damaging the architectural integrity and function of tissues that are naturally immuneresponsive or immune-privileged, and initiating a wide range of inflammatory diseases or tumorigenesis (Khatami 2008, 2009, 2011).
In recent years, the interest in multidisciplinary fields of inflammatory diseases has intensified. Specifically, over the last decades, the number of federally funded projects and related networks or technologies that focus on the role of inflammation in cancer research has significantly increased. This book is a collection of comprehensive reviews contributed by experts in diverse fields of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, with emphasis on current pharmacological and therapeutic options.
Interested professionals are also encouraged to review the excellent contributions made by experts in a second book entitled ‘Inflammation, Chronic Diseases and Cancer’, which deals with immunobiology and clinical perspectives of mechanisms of immune inflammatory responses in the genesis and progression of a number of inflammatory diseases and cancers, as well as perspectives for design of clinical trials, therapeutic approaches, and for diagnosis or prevention of disabling diseases, particularly as aging population is increasing globally.
Editor is grateful to all contributing authors for developing comprehensive chapters on multidisciplinary fields of inflammatory diseases. This book is dedicated to the loving memory of my parents, Kazem and Badri-Zaman Khatami. The invaluable support and encouragement of the following professionals and friends is greatly appreciated: John H. Rockey, MD, PhD, mentor/friend and senior colleague at the University of Pennsylvania, who shaped my early career and who trained me in experimental models of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases which resulted in the ‘accidental’ discoveries in 1980’s, suggestive of the first evidence for a direct association between inflammation and tumorigenesis; Edward J. Massaro, PhD, from the Environmental Agency and Editor in Chief, Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics, my mentor at the State University of New York at Buffalo and a long time colleague and
friend who encouraged me professionally throughout the years; and John H. Bayens, PhD, Distinguished Professor at the University of South Carolina and long time colleague who generously supported my work in multidisciplinary fields of inflammation, diabetes and cancer research. The author also wishes to pay tribute to the memory of her good friend and colleague Shirin (Shirley) Mirsepassi (Tollouie), MD, pathologist (1944-2011) whose true friendship and support were above and beyond the call of duty.

Mahin Khatami, Ph.D.
Inflammation, Aging and Cancer Research
National Cancer Institute (Retired)
The National Institutes of Health, Bethesda,


Part 1 Role of Immune System in Acute and Chronic Inflammatory Diseases .

 1 Dementia – A Complete Literature Review on Various Mechanisms Involves in Pathogenesis and an Intracerebroventricular Streptozotocin Induced Alzheimer’s Disease 3 Sidharth Mehan, Rimpi Arora, Vandana Sehgal, Deepak Sharma and Garuav Sharma

 2 Cachexia – The Interplay Between the Immune System, Brain Control and Metabolism 27 Andrea Stofkova

 3 Innate Immune System in Sepsis Immunopathogenesis and Its Modulation as a Future Therapeutic Approach 57 Vijay Kumar

 4 Psoriasis and Diabetes 83 Ermira Vasili, Migena Vargu, Genc Burazeri, Katerina Hysi, Elna Cano and Brikena Bezati

 5 Inflammation and Pulmonary Fibrosis 99 Michael G. Crooks, Imran Aslam and Simon P. Hart

 6 Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration – Implications for Therapy 129 Mei Chen and Heping Xu

 7 Inflammatory Periprosthetic Bone Loss 151 Sang-Soo Lee, P. Edward Purdue and Ju-Suk Nam

 8 Acute Appendicitis – Propedeutics and Diagnosis 171 Andy Petroianu

 9 Neoplastic Pericardial Disease 201 Mitja Letonja

Part 2 Inflammatory Diseases - Therapeutic Approaches, Markers Identification and Applications .

 10 Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells for Therapy of Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases 213 Urban Švajger and Borut Štrukelj

 11 Prohepcidin and Hepcidin in Acute Phase Reaction Accompanying Large Cardiac Surgery 239 Pavel Maruna, Martin Vokurka and Jaroslav Lindner

 12 Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase – An Evolving Therapeutic Target 253 Y. Michael Shim and Mikell Paige

 13 Relationship Between Protein Oxidation Markers and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers 279 Silvia Clara Kivatinitz

 14 Characterization of Acute-Phase Proteins (Apps) 299 Sin Tak Chu and Ying Chu Lee

 15 Polymerized Type I Collagen Reverts Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Fibrosis in a Guinea Pig Asthma Model 319 Blanca Bazán-Perkins, Maria G. Campos and Edgar Sánchez-Guerrero

 16 Genetic Variation in Resistance to Inflammation and Infectious Disease 333 Heng-wei Cheng

 17 Acute Phase Proteins – Analysis, Clinical Applications and Potentials 351 Shahabeddin Safi

 18 Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Oregano (Origanum vulgare) Essentials Oils Show some In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Effects Based on Modifying Adipokine Secretion and Gene Expression on TNF--Induced Adipocytes 381 A. Ocaña-Fuentes .

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Published by: Unknown - Saturday, June 8, 2013


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