Open Access Medical Books

BIOENERGETICS

TEXTBOOK : BIOENERGETICS

Edited by Kevin Clark .

Open Access .
292 pages .
ISBN 978-953-51-0090-4 .


All living matter, from the conventional basic unit of life, the cell, to a higher-order integrated manifestation of cells, an organism, exists an open dynamical system requiring capabilities for extracting energy from respective interstitial, host, or ambient environments, for converting that same energy to biologically useful forms, and for employing biologically useful energy to drive energetically expensive life processes. In a most general sense, the scope of the scientific discipline now called bioenergetics extends to all of biophysics and biochemistry as they concern the study and description of energy transformations that occur during thousands of organic chemical reactions in living soft matter. As one should expect, the definition and scope of bioenergetics have changed with time. Landmark transitions, such as the discoveries of photosynthesis, of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate and their roles in working muscle, of cytochromes and the respiratory chain, and of membrane-dependent electron transport and chemiosmotic coupling, accompany technological and conceptual innovations. Over the past thirty-or-so years, traditions in study at the level of membrane-bound energy-transducing catalysts have switched to an emphasis on the deeper molecular nature of bioenergetics, including the gene expression, biosynthesis, and membrane assembly of catalysts, the production and neutralization of harmful reactive oxygen species known as free radicals, the quantum efficiency of energy-harvesting protein complexes, and the effect these and other events have on the state of cells and organisms. This transition from the science of membrane physiology to molecular biology comes with advancing instrumentation and methods which allow researchers to probe the biological function and impact of macromolecules and substrate of smaller physical scales. As readers of this threesectioned collected volume will find, however, these trends in bioenergetics theory and research often complement, rather than replace, more established interests in membrane physiology and will lead to progress in such endeavors as preventing mitochondrial diseases, improving physical performance, and slowing aging.
Even in the midst of conceptual and technical revolutions, bioenergeticists typically take for granted that their discipline broadly entails studying the transformation of biological fuels by cells. Yet, despite many textbooks and peer-review articles published in scientific journals devoted to the subject of bioenergetics, no fixed origin for this field of study is objectively identifiable. A few words here placing contemporary scientific trends within the context of past and anticipated achievements might be therefore instructive to readers. Popular experts on bioenergetics assign its beginnings as far back as the mid-18th century (e.g., Ernster, 1984) and as recently as the mid-20th century (e.g., Nicholls, 1982). Discrepancies between authorities on this matter chiefly result from how one defines bioenergetics and from what historic scientific milestones one measures as being crucial to the field’s development.
Modernists have several convincing reasons for affixing the initial date of bioenergetics to circa 1950, such as mounting evidence at that time indicating mechanisms of respiratory chain catalysis and ATP synthesis were located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of animals, in the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts, and in the chromatophore or plasma membrane of photosynthetic bacteria. However, this perspective ignores the enormous significance of roughly 200 years of preceding research. Ernster (1984), utilizing a general characterization of bioenergetics as the biological process of acquiring energy from oxidative reactions, cites the independent experimental discoveries of oxygen by Joseph Priestly, Antoine Lavoisier, and Carl Scheele during the 1770s as the birth of bioenergetics. Each of these pioneering figures in chemistry tested the properties of their newly found gas through its influence on living organisms. Priestly, for example, proposed a functional relationship between oxygen and blood, verified vertebrates consume purified oxygen with improvements in health, and showed green plants produce oxygen. While Lavoisier, dispelling George Stahl’s phlogiston theory of combustible materials, demonstrated respiring guinea pigs emit heat. Also instrumental in Ernster’s scholarly dating of bioenergetics was Scheele’s subsequent isolation of organic compounds, such as citric acid, lactic acid, and glycerol, from living tissue: Jan Ingenhousz, Jean Senebier, and Nicolas- Théodore de Saussure’s initial observations of photosynthesis and cellular respiration by green plants: and Julius von Mayer’s formulation of the First Law of Thermodynamics, which relates energy conservation through concepts of a system’s internal energy, heat exchange, and work......


Kevin B. Clark
Portland, OR
USA
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CONTENTS : 


Part 1 Reviews of Bioenergetics Applied to Life Span and Disease .


 1 Antioxidant Action of Mobile Electron Carriers of the Respiratory Chain 3 Iseli L. Nantes, Tiago Rodrigues, César H. Yokomizo, Juliana C. Araújo-Chaves, Felipe S. Pessoto, Mayara K. Kisaki and Vivian W. R. Moraes

 2 Mitochondrial Calcium Signalling: Role in Oxidative Phosphorylation Diseases 29 Oulès Bénédicte, Del Prete Dolores and Chami Mounia

 3 Bioenergetics Theory of Aging 63 Alexander G. Trubitsyn

 4 Sirtuin-Dependent Metabolic Control and Its Role in the Aging Process 95 Sara Santa-Cruz Calvo, Plácido Navas and Guillermo López-Lluch

 5 Energy Metabolism in Children and Adolescents 121 Valentin Son’kin and Ritta Tambovtseva

 6 Role of Inorganic Polyphosphate in the Energy Metabolism of Ticks 143 Eldo Campos, Arnoldo R. Façanha, Jorge Moraes and Carlos Logullo


Part 2 Reviews of Bioenergetics Applied to Performance Optimization .


 7 Bioenergetics Applied to Swimming: An Ecological Method to Monitor and Prescribe Training 159 Rodrigo Zacca and Flávio Antônio de Souza Castro

 8 Invertebrates Mitochondrial Function and Energetic Challenges 181 Oliviert Martinez-Cruz, Arturo Sanchez-Paz, Fernando Garcia-Carreño, Laura Jimenez-Gutierrez, Ma. de los Angeles Navarrete del Toro and Adriana Muhlia-Almazan

 9 Optimisation of Cell Bioenergetics in Food-Associated Microorganisms 219 Diego Mora and Stefania Arioli


Part 3 New Techniques and Findings in Bioenergetics Research .


 10 Phosphorescence Oxygen Analyzer as a Measuring Tool for Cellular Bioenergetics 237 Fatma Al-Jasmi, Ahmed R. Al Suwaidi, Mariam Al-Shamsi, Farida Marzouqi, Aysha Al Mansouri, Sami Shaban, Harvey S. Penefsky and Abdul-Kader Souid

 11 Targeting the Mitochondria by Novel Adamantane-Containing 1,4-Dihydropyridine Compounds 257 Linda Klimaviciusa, Maria A. S. Fernandes, Nelda Lencberga, Marta Pavasare, Joaquim A. F. Vicente, António J. M. Moreno, Maria S. Santos, Catarina R. Oliveira, Imanta Bruvere, Egils Bisenieks, Brigita Vigante and Vija Klusa.





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