Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Elena Aikawa .

540 pages .
Open Access .
ISBN 978-953-51-1150-4 .

Valvular heart diseases represent an underappreciated yet serious and growing problem.
Due to population aging, calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) has become the most common heart valve disease in developed and rapidly developing regions of the world, affecting approximately 25% of adults over 65 years of age. No therapies exist to slow this disease progression, and surgical valve replacement is the only effective treatment. More than 275,000 aortic valve replacements are performed annually worldwide, and this number is expected to triple by 2050. Although rheumatic heart disease continues to be an important problem in developing countries, its prevalence has generally declined. This book will address CAVD as a common heart valve disease, focusing predominantly on the underlying mechanisms and current treatment approaches. We hope that this book will enable readers to grasp the current knowledge and focus on the possibility of preventing disease progression in the near future.
The book is divided into six sections and comprised of 18 chapters written by well-recognized investigators from United States, Europe, and Asia. Section I focuses on the biology and function of the normal aortic valve. Chapter 1 is written by a research group lead by Dr. K. Jane Grande-Allen, a renowned investigator in the field of cardiac valve extracellular matrix and valve biology. It describes the role of major and minor matrices in normal valves, focusing on extracellular matrix function and biomechanical properties. Chapter 2, written by Prof. Tilea Ioan, deals with the anatomy and function of normal aortic valve components.
Section II provides current insight into the mechanisms of CAVD. It begins with Chapter 3, written by Prof. Katherine Yutzey, a prominent scholar in valve developmental biology, who provides an overview of signaling pathways involved in valve development and their reactivation during CAVD progression. This chapter also describes osteogenic-related molecular pathways involved in CAVD, and provides an outlook on developing therapeutics to treat CAVD. The next two chapters (Chapter 4, written by Dr. Erik Fung, and Chapter 5, written by Dr. Claudia Goettsch) offer evolving insights into the mechanisms of CAVD, including NOTCH signaling and microRNA dysregulation. Topics covered in Section III include proteomics and metabolomics in Chapter 6, written by Dr. Maria Barderas; and genetics in Chapter 7, written by Dr. Robert Hinton. Both chapters represent innovative technology platforms recently developed to identify DNA, RNA, proteins, and peptides in different biological compartments, which could serve as biomarkers for various diseases.
Section IV reviews advances in the field of heart valve tissue engineering and is comprised of two chapters written by leaders in the field (Chapter 8, written by Prof. Carlijn Bouten, and Chapter 9, written by Prof. Gino Gerosa). New cutting-edge approaches, including heart valve tissue engineering and tissue-guided regeneration, have been proposed to overcome the limitations of current valve substitutes. These chapters describe the foreign body response to implantation of biomaterials, preclinical and clinical models, principles of tissue engineering, and strategies to improve viable and functional aortic valve substitutes. Section V provides comprehensive information on bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease, in Chapter 10, written by Dr. George Tokmaji, and Chapter 11, written by Dr. Mehmed Demir. This section covers the diagnosis, treatment, and complications of BAV disease, and is particularly important because BAV is a common congenital cardiac abnormality affecting 2% of the population, and presenting in 50% of adults undergoing valve replacement for severe CAVD. Finally, Section VI is comprised of seven chapters written by an international team, including Drs. Velicki Lazar, Oz Fahrettin, Karali Kaan, Juan Bustamate, Akin Ibrahim, and Kazumasa Orihashi, and covers different aspects of CAVD treatment options, including the recently developed transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Chapter 18, written by Hideaki Senzaki on congenital aortic stenosis in pediatric patients, closes this section.
This book will provide the most up-to-date knowledge in the fast-growing and ever-changing field of aortic valve pathobiology. We hope that it will be useful for cardiologists, cardiovascular surgeons, fellows, and scientists who, we believe, should always be searching for updates in diagnosis, treatment, and research advancement. This open-access book will provide the most current information on CAVD.
I acknowledge my mentors — Dr. Frederick J. Schoen, for introducing me to the exciting biology of cardiac valve disease, and Dr. Peter Libby, for his continuous support and inspiration. And I can never thank my family enough — especially my husband, Dr. Masanori Aikawa, for believing in me and encouraging me throughout my career.

Elena Aikawa, MD, PhD
Associate Professor of Medicine
Harvard Medical School
Director, Vascular Biology Program
Center for Interdisciplinary Cardiovascular Sciences
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Boston, USA


Section 1 of the Textbook : Biology and Function of Normal Aortic Valve .

 1 Extracellular Matrix Organization, Structure, and Function 3 Dena Wiltz, C. Alexander Arevalos, Liezl R. Balaoing, Alicia A. Blancas, Matthew C. Sapp, Xing Zhang and K. Jane Grande-Allen

 2 Anatomy and Function of Normal Aortic Valvular Complex 31 Ioan Tilea, Horatiu Suciu, Brindusa Tilea, Cristina Maria Tatar, Mihaela Ispas and Razvan Constantin Serban

Section 2 of the Textbook : Mechanisms of Calcific Aortic Valve Disease .

 3 Developmental Pathways in CAVD 59 Elaine E. Wirrig and Katherine E. Yutzey

 4 Notch Signaling in Congenital and Acquired Aortic Valve Disease 105 Erik Fung and Masanori Aikawa

 5 Role of MicroRNAs in Cardiovascular Calcification 123 Claudia Goettsch and Elena Aikawa

Section 3 of the Textbook : Genetics, Proteomics and Metabolomics of Calcific Aortic Valve Disease .

 6 Proteomics and Metabolomics in Aortic Stenosis: Studying Healthy Valves for a Better Understanding of the Disease 151 L. Mourino-Alvarez, C.M. Laborde and M.G. Barderas

 7 Genetics of Bicuspid Aortic Valve and Calcific Aortic Valve Disease 173 Robert B. Hinton

Section 4 of the Textbook : New Strategies in Heart Valve Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine .

 8 The Immune Response in In Situ Tissue Engineering of Aortic Heart Valves 207 S. L. M. van Loon, A. I. P. M. Smits, A. Driessen-Mol, F. P. T. Baaijens and C. V. C. Bouten

 9 Cutting-Edge Regenerative Medicine Technologies for the Treatment of Heart Valve Calcification 247 Laura Iop and Gino Gerosa

Section 5 of the Textbook : Bicuspid Aortic Valve .

 10 Bicuspid Aortic Valve 305 George Tokmaji, Berto J. Bouma, Dave R. Koolbergen and Bas A.J.M. de Mol

 11 The Bicuspid Aortic Valve 335 Mehmet Demir

Section 6 of the Textbook : Current Treatment Approaches of Calcific Aortic Valve Disease .

 12 Surgical Valve Replacement (Bioprosthetic vs. Mechanical) 361 Stamenko Šušak, Lazar Velicki, Dušan Popović and Ivana Burazor

 13 Current Treatment Options in Aortic Stenosis 379 Fahrettin Oz, Fatih Tufan, Ahmet Ekmekci, Omer A. Sayın and Huseyin Oflaz

 14 Stentless Bioprosthess for Aortic Valve Replacement in Calcific Aortic Stenosis 411 Kaan Kirali

 15 New Therapeutic Approaches to Conventional Surgery for Aortic Stenosis in High-Risk Patients 451 Omer Leal, Juan Bustamante, Sergio Cánovas and Ángel G. Pinto

 16 Indications for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation 483 Ibrahim Akin, Stephan Kische, Henrik Schneider, Tim C. Rehders, Christoph A. Nienaber and Hüseyin Ince

 17 Aortic Valve Replacement for Calcified Aortic Valves 499 Kazumasa Orihashi

 18 Congenital Aortic Stenosis in Children 517 Hirofumi Saiki and Hideaki Senzaki

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Published by: Unknown - Thursday, June 13, 2013


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