Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Kazuko Masuo .

544 pages .
Open Access .
ISBN 978-953-51-1171-9 .

The epidemic like rise in the prevalence of obesity constitutes an undoubted global serious, health problem. Importantly, type 2 diabetes is frequently associated with obesity and, together, constitute a significant burden in terms of patients morbidity and escalating health care costs. Patients with type 2 diabetes have 2-4 times higher risk of cardiovascular risk and renal complications than those without diabetes and their relative risk for cardiovascular disease, mortality and morbidity is twice as high. In addition, the elevated cardiovascular risk affecting with type 2 diabetes may be attributed to dyslipidemia hypertension, coronary heart disease, renal injury, and cancer. Importantly, when taken in isolation, obesity, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia are all associated with increased risk of the development of cardiovascular and renal complications; however, the coexistence of this triumvirate generates a substantial elevation in disease risk. The driving forces linking obesity and type 2 diabetes remain to be clarified due, in part, to the complex and multifactorial nature of the conditions that involve environmental, genetic, life style and behavioural confounders. Additionally, it is recognized that insulin resistance, beta-cell function in the pancreas, epigenetic and molecular mechanisms are also involved.
This book on “Type 2 diabetes” includes three separate parts separated, consisting of (1) Pathophysiology understanding the pathogenesis and mechanisms of the onset and development of type 2 diabetes; (2) Complications of type 2 diabetes; including proteinuria as a marker of renal complication, and foot ulcers, which are frequently experienced in medical practice as type 2 diabetes progress; and (3) Prevention and Treatments for type 2 diabetes, including effective screening for type 2 diabetes, non-pharmacological treatments by lifestyle modification, surgical treatments, pharmacological treatments, insulin therapy, and a development of psycho-diabetic Kit for support to diagnose psychological status. “Pathophysiology” section: Insulin resistance plays an important role in type 2 diabetes and obesity-related diseases. Dr Arce-Esquivel et al. contributed to this book with an excellent review titled (i) “insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction”. The relationship between insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction and the interaction between insulin and its vascular and metabolic effects from the signalling pathway to target tissues (i.e. vessels) are discussed. In addition, they reviewed the effects of exercise, as a part of lifestyle modification, on vascular insulin resistance. (ii) “Beta-cell function under physiological conditions and the potential beta-cell failure mechanisms” was written by Dr. Popa and Prof. Mota.
They highlighted the importance of a long-term glucolipotoxixity for the onset of type 2 diabetes. To understand the mechanisms of beta-cell dysfunction helps in the implication for treatment of beta-cell dysfunction. The next 2 chapters focused on the molecular mechanisms on insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, and both chapters were excellently written for readers to understand molecular basis on type 2 diabetes. Dr. Kata et al. reviewed the chapter with (iii) “epigenetic regulation and mechanisms in type 2 diabetes” with the thrifty phenotype hypothesis by Halas et al. Epigenetic and molecular mechanisms in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) were covered. Epigenetic modifications affecting glucose regulation and insulin secretion in the IUGR organs (i.e. liver, pancreas beta-cells, and muscles) can contribute to the onset of type 2 diabetes along with the genetic and environmental influences. Environmental effects such as lifestyle modifications (i.e. exercise, nutrients, and diet) can also induce epigenetic alterations. Dr. Turner showed the chapter (iv) “Mitochondrial metabolism and insulin action” to understand the molecular mechanism of glucose metabolisms, insulin resistance and possible mechanisms to cause type 2 diabetes with precise figures....

Associate Professor Kazuko Masuo, MD, PhD, FAHA
Nucleus Network Ltd.,
Baker IDI Heart & Diabetes Institute
Academic Fellow, Baker IDI Heart & Diabetes Institute.,
Melbourne, Australia


Section 1 Type 2 Diabetes - Pathophysiology .

 1 Insulin Resistance and Endothelial Dysfunction: Macro and Microangiopathy 3 Arturo A. Arce-Esquivel, Aaron K. Bunker, Catherine R. Mikus and M. Harold Laughlin

 2 Beta-Cell Function and Failure in Type 2 Diabetes 29 Simona Popa and Maria Mota

 3 Epigenetics of Glucose Metabolism and the Basis for T2DM Interventions 51 Katia Cristina Portero McLellan, Rodrigo Minoro Manda, Lance A. Sloan and Roberto Carlos Burini

 4 Mitochondrial Metabolism and Insulin Action 71 Nigel Turner

 5 Sympathovagal Imbalance in Type 2 Diabetes — Role of Brainstem Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone 115 Yang Hong

 6 Arterial Stiffness: A Review in Type 2 Diabetes 143 Mariella Catalano, Giovanni Scandale and Gabriel Dimitrov

 7 Association Between Creatinine Clearance and Insulin- Resistance in Healthy Adolescent Boys 157 Valeria Hirschler

 8 HDL, apo B/apo A1 ratio, Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Disease 171 Dhastagir Sultan Sheriff, Sachu P. and Elshaari F.A.

Section 2 Type 2 Diabetes - Complications .

 9 Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and Proteinuria 205 Relu Cernes and Reuven Zimlichman

 10 Diabetes and Cancer 233 Subhashini Yaturu

 11 Anemia of Chronic Kidney Disease — A Modifiable Risk Factor in a Growing High Cardiovascular Risk Population 253 Nadine Montemarano, Jennifer Guttman and Samy I. McFarlane

 12 Diabetic Foot Ulcers — Treatment and Prevention 269 Jarrod Shapiro, Diane Koshimune and Rebecca Moellmer

 13 The Diabetic Charcot Foot – New Insights on Treatment 301 Fernando Grover Páez, Sylvia Elena Totsuka Sutto, Sara Pascoe González, Ernesto G. Cardona Muñóz and Carlos Enrique Medina García

Section 3 Type 2 Diabetes - Prevention and Treatments .

 14 Screening for Diabetes in Family Practice: A Case Study in Ontario, Canada 321 Gina Agarwal

 15 Socio-Ecological Approach to Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Activity and Dietary Intervention 333 Rashid M. Ansari, John B. Dixon and Colette J. Browning

 16 Lifestyle Modification Is the First Line Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes 353 Kazuko Masuo

 17 Control and Prevention of Obesity and Diabetes Type 2 Through Non-Pharmacological Treatments Based on Marine Products 385 Daniela Seelenfreund, Pilar Durruty, Nicolas Palou, Sergio Lobos and Rodrigo González

 18 Beneficial Effects of Alternative Exercise in Patients with Diabetes Type II 407 Naruemon Leelayuwat

 19 Understanding the Effects of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) Surgery on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 445 Raymond G. Lau, Michael Radin, Collin E. Brathwaite and Louis Ragolia

 20 Pharmacological Treatments for Type 2 Diabetes 469 Roberto Pontarolo, Andréia Cristina Conegero Sanches, Astrid Wiens, Helena Hiemisch Lobo Borba, Luana Lenzi and Suelem Tavares da Silva Penteado

 21 Insulin Therapy for Diabetes 497 Shara S. Azad, Esma R. Isenovic, Subhashini Yaturu and Shaker A. Mousa

 22 Psychodiabetic Kit and Its Application in Clinical Practice and Research 507 Andrzej Kokoszka, Aleksandra Jodko-Modlińska, Marcin Obrębski, Joanna Ostasz-Ważny and Rafał Radzio .

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