Open Access Medical Books

TEXTBOOK : XENOTRANSPLANTATION

XENOTRANSPLANTATION

Edited by Shuji Miyagawa .

190 pages .
Open Access .

Attempts of transplanting tissue from animals to humans have been made for hundreds of years. Several records are found from 17th Century. In the years to come, many clinical trials were done one after another. However, with the successful progress of allotransplantation using new immunosuppressive drugs, such as
cyclosporine, the necessity of xenotransplantation has declined.
However, the current shortage of donor organs and the increasing need for them have led to a revival of interest in the area of xenotransplantation. Xenografting can be classified as either discordant or concordant, such as pig to human or monkey to human, respectively, based on the severity and pattern of the graft rejection. The pig represents an ideal animal for discordant xenografts due to a variety of reasons, including anatomical, physiological and ethical considerations. The exposure of pig cells, tissues and organs to human blood, however, results in a hyperacute rejection (HAR) which is mediated by naturally occurring high-titer antibodies, mainly a variety epitope Gal alpha(1,3)Gal and complements in humans.
After the transgenic technique became useful for pigs, transgenic (TG)-pigs with the complement regulatory proteins, such as decay accelerating factor (DAF: CD55), were produced in succession. Xenotransplantation study, for example the prevention of NK cell, an expression of HLA on pigs, also became popular all over the world.
However, once the problems of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERVs) emerged, the boom of xenotransplantation study relatively declined. The pig genome contains at least 50 pro-viral copies of PERVs. The ability of PERV to infect human cells in vitro has generated a debate concerning the risks associated with xenotransplantation.
On the other hand, accompanied by the advent of animal cloning, the technique of nuclear transfer produced alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase-knockout (Gal-KO) pigs in many institutes, including Japan, at the beginning of 21st Century. In addition, the controversy about the risk of PERV has gradually minimized, because of the fact that there are no cases of PERV infections reported in humans. Furthermore, a large clinical wave of islet allotransplantation resumed the interest of xenotransplantation, especially porcine islet transplantation and some exceptions. Moreover, a new study of xenotransplantation for neurodegenerative diseases also started in Europe.
InTech started the book Xenotransplantation and invited me to be the editor, which was an honor to accept. The recent unpopularity of xenotransplantation studies and my relative influence in this field resulted with a number of chapters that are not as comprehensive to cover the full extent of xenotransplantation study at this time.
However, the chapters gathered herein introduce extremely important topics. Finally, the clinical trials were done in many countries so far, such as Sweden, China, Mexico, USA (Inventory of Human Xenotransplantation Practices: IXA and HUG in collaboration with WHO). In addition, a new clinical trial was approved by the government, and resumed the porcine islet transplantation research in New Zealand two years ago.

Dr. Shuji Miyagawa
Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine
Department of Surgery
Japan
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CONTENTS :

Part 1 Basic .


 1 Anti-Gal and Anti-Non Gal Antibody Barriers in Xenotransplantation 3 Uri Galili

 2 Piscine Islet Xenotransplantation 19 James R. Wright, Jr.

Part 2 Genetic Engineering .


 3 Cloning of Homozygous 1,3-Galactosyltransferase Gene Knock-Out Pigs by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer 37 Hitomi Matsunari, Masahito Watanabe, Kazuhiro Umeyama, Kazuaki Nakano, Yuka Ikezawa, Mayuko Kurome, Barbara Kessler, Eckhard Wolf, Shuji Miyagawa, Hiromitsu Nakauchi and Hiroshi Nagashima

 4 Function Measurements of HLA-II Transgenic Pigs for Xenotransplantation 55 Hao-Chih Tai, Ching-Fu Tu, Tien-Shuh Yang, Jang-Ming Lee,San-Yuan Huang and Bao-Tyan Wang

 5 Targeted Toxin as a Useful Reagent for Enrichment of -Gal Epitope-Negative Cells Used for Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in Pigs 67 Masahiro Sato, Haiying Chi and Kazuchika Miyoshi

Part 3 Clinic and Preclinic .


 6 Developing Xenostandards for Microbiological Safety: New Zealand Experience 77 O. Garkavenko, S. Wynyard, D. Nathu and R. Elliott

 7 The Use of Xenotransplantation in Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Way to Go? 93 Xavier Lévêque, Kyle Fink, Julien Rossignol Gary L Dunbar and Laurent Lescaudron

 8 Methods and Tools for Detection and Evaluation of the Risks of Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus in Porcine to Human Xenotransplantation 107 Takele Argaw and Carolyn A. Wilson .



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Published by: younes younes - Wednesday, June 5, 2013

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