Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Kiumars Ghowsi .

246 pages . 
Open Access .
ISBN 978-953-51-0846-7 .

Electrophoresis experiment was first carried out by Tiselius in 1930. In his thesis titled, “The Moving Boundary Method to Study the Electrophoresis of Proteins“, Tiselius utilized the electric charge carried by the macromolecules to achieve some pioneering separation of blood plasma proteins in free solution on a photographic film.
Electrophoresis is defined as the transport of electrically charged particles in a direct current electric field. Electrophoretic separation is based on differential rates of migration in the bulk of the liquid phase and is not concerned with reactions occurring at the electrodes. In the early days, electrophoresis was carried out either in free solution or in the supporting media such as paper, cellulose acetate, starch, agarose, and polyacry lamide gel. In between 1950 to 1970, an enumeration of techniques and instrumentation for Electrophoresis were developed.
Gel electrophoresis has been rarely used for the separation and identification of small charged molecules of molecular weight less than about 1000 Dalton. In addition, the major draw back of gel electrophoresis is lack of complete automation.
To overcome the low efficiency and reduce thermal effects, Hjerten carried out electrophoresis in narrow diameter tubes of 300 μm internal diameter the first time in 1967. This was the birth of open tubular capillary electrophoresis. However, in the following decade, capillary electrophoresis did not draw enough attention from researchers. Only until 1981 when Jorgenson and Lukacs demonstrated the use of narrow capillaries to produce high efficiency for the separation of dansy and fluorescamine derivatives of amino acids, dipeptides and simple amines, high performance capillary electrophoresis was born and a new era of capillary electrophoresis has begun. After the introduction of commercial CE instrument in late 1988 that allowed the full automation of CE analysis to be possible, more and more research publications and industrial applications have made capillary electrophoresis one of the dominant technologies in the separation field. In 1985 Terabe et. al added a new dimension to capillary electrophoresis. They added micelles to the aqueous electrolyte and were able to separate neutral molecules such as benzene and phenol.
Using this technique it is possible to separate various drugs which are neutral or even charged. One that can separate enantiomers using this technique is called micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC).
The present book contains few fundamentals on capillary electrophoresis and diverse application of electrophoresis in general. We hope this collection will entertain the readers who are interested in fundamental as well as applications of electrophoresis in general.

Dr. Kiumars Ghowsi
Majlessi Branch, Islamic Azad University,


 1 New Looks at Capillary Zone Electrophoresis (CZE) and Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography (MECC) and Optimization of MECC 1 Kiumars Ghowsi and Hosein Ghowsi

2 Method Development by Use of Capillary Electrophoresis and Applications in Pharmaceutical, Biological and Natural Samples 17 Constantina P. Kapnissi-Christodoulou

 3 Numerical Modelling of Light Propagation for Development of Capillary Electrophoretic and Photochemical Detection Systems 41 Tomasz Piasecki, Aymen Ben Azouz, Brett Paull, Mirek Macka and Dermot Brabazon

 4 Protein Electrophoresis in Saliva Study 63 Elsa Lamy, Ana R. Costa, Célia M. Antunes, Rui Vitorino and Francisco Amado

 5 Electrophoresis of Myocardial Cells 85 Ying Zhou

 6 Isozymes: Application for Population Genetics 97 Vibeke Simonsen

 7 Electrophoresis as a Useful Tool in Studying the Quality of Meat Products 117 Dario G. Pighin

 8 Application of the Different Electrophoresis Techniques to the Detection and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Wines 137 Lucía González-Arenzana, Rosa López, Pilar Santamaría and Isabel López-Alfaro

 9 Isoenzyme Analyses Tools Used Long Time in Forest Science 157 Malgorzata K. Sulkowska

 10 Seminal Plasma Proteins as Potential Markers of Relative Fertility in Zebu Bulls (Bos taurus indicus) 173 Marcelo G.M. Chacur

 11 Identification of Polymorphism in the Keratin Genes (KAP3.2, KAP6.1, KAP7, KAP8) and Microsatellite BfMS in Merino Sheep Using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conformational Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) Analysi 193 Theopoline Omagano Itenge

 12 Temporal Expression of Isozymes, Alozymes and Metabolic Markers at the Early Ontogeny of Prochilodus argenteus (Characidae – Prochilodontidae) from São Francisco Basin, Três Marias, Minas Gerais, Brazil 221 Flavia Simone Munin, Maria Regina de Aquino-Silva, Maria Luiza Barcellos Schwantes, Vera Maria Fonseca de Almeida-Val, Arno Rudi Schwantes and Yoshimi Sato .

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