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ANOPHELES MOSQUITOES - NEW INSIGHTS INTO MALARIA VECTORS

TEXTBOOK : ANOPHELES MOSQUITOES - NEW INSIGHTS INTO MALARIA VECTORS

Edited by Sylvie Manguin .

828 pages .
Open Access .
ISBN 978-953-51-1188-7 .


First of all I would like to thank Sylvie Manguin, Editor of this book, who compiled 24 chapters that present current knowledge on malaria vector taxa. By asking me to preface this book, Sylvie got me out of my “bubble of Auvergne Region” and reconnected me with a scientific community that I had indeed never abandoned. It is with great pleasure that I found in this book the contributions of my former students and friends.
At the end of the second millennium, I had more or less put my pen down while the threat of global warming posed a major concern for the development and extension of vectorborne diseases. Particularly pessimistic forecasts predicted an extension of malaria up to the Polar Circle. However, no geographic expansion of malaria has been noticed in the last 20 years [1]. At most, the disease has reappeared on the Korean Peninsula where it was eradicated in the 1950s [2, 3]. Also, no particular invasion of Anopheles species has been observed as opposed to the global invasion of Aedes albopictus [4].
After the failure of the World Programme of Malaria Eradication (1950), WHO (World Health Organization) proposed at the Conference of Amsterdam (1992) a new strategy based on the treatment of all clinical cases using all chemo-therapeutic compounds, in particular the artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Vector control was a principal component of prevention. The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITN) has been shown to be effective in all epidemiological situations, and the pyrethroids used to impregnate the nets (permethrin, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etc), besides protecting sleepers, has a beneficial impact on all members of communities where these nets are used [5, 6].
In last 20 years, manufacturers produced long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) using fabrics that retain insecticide activity from three to five years (even after more than 15 washes).
These LLINs are well accepted by users, and more than 24 million nets have been distributed in the Afrotropical Region alone. In 1992, it was expected that implementation of this new strategy would initially reduce malaria mortality by 50% [6]. However, accurate data on malaria deaths is very difficult to obtain; this mainly rural disease often eludes official statistics and the results of different studies vary widely depending on the sources. The most recent estimates provided by Murray et al. in 2012 [7] give a more nuanced trend with the malaria mortality burden being larger than previously estimated, especially in adults.
This study estimated that in 2010 malaria was the cause of 1.24 million deaths compared to 655,000 deaths reported by WHO, and in the Afrotropical Region infant mortality (children < 5 years old) due to malaria was estimated to be 24% versus 16% based on the WHO malaria report estimates [8]. These figures, although imprecise, provide a current estimate of the impact of malaria worldwide, which falls far short of the expected results despite the enormous financial expenditures of the WHO, charitable organizations, foundations and national initiatives.
Currently, the spectrum of resistance to many, if not the majority, of insecticides continues to pose a serious threat to all control programs, and alternate methods of control are of very limited efficacy [9]. Larval control by insecticides or insect growth regulators (IGR) is limited to specific habitats, such as the oases of Oman. Hopes are now based on genetic control by transgenic mosquitoes. Research underway for more than 20 years has not produced a means of controlling malaria on a continental scale such as Africa where it endures without a solution for sustained control. We are still left with expectation.
Finally, one cannot ignore the considerable work on the systematics of Anopheles mosquitoes. In addition to the creation of the subgenus Baimaia by Harbach, Rattanarithikul & Harrison, many new species have been described or are waiting to be described [10, 11], especially in Asia where the majority of the vectors belong to species complexes [4]. Southeast Asia with the Anopheles dirus complex and New Guinea with the Anopheles farauti complex, both comprised of eight species, represent 'hot spots' of Anopheles biodiversity. Species complexes include vectors and non-vectors and the identification of the vector species poses a real problem that can be solved by the new techniques apparent in the book.
This book, describing new insights and innovative approaches to the study of malaria vectors, contributes to a passionate aim of society – the eradication of malaria as a cause of morbidity and mortality in the poorest populations of the world.

Prof. Jean Mouchet
Emeritus Research Professor at IRD
Langeac, France

CONTENTS : 


Section 1 Species Identification and Phylogeny of Anopheles .


 1 The Phylogeny and Classification of Anopheles Ralph E. Harbach

 2 Systematic Techniques for the Recognition of Anopheles Species Complexes 57 Wej Choochote and Atiporn Saeung

 3 Genetic and Phenetic Approaches to Anopheles Systematics 81 Claire Garros and Jean-Pierre Dujardin


Section 2 Genetic Diversity and Distribution of Dominant Vector Species .


 4 Global Distribution of the Dominant Vector Species of Malaria 109 Marianne E. Sinka

 5 Phylogeography, Vectors and Transmission in Latin America 145 Jan E. Conn, Martha L. Quiñones and Marinete M. Póvoa

 6 Speciation in Anopheles gambiae — The Distribution of Genetic Polymorphism and Patterns of Reproductive Isolation Among Natural Populations 173 Gregory C. Lanzaro and Yoosook Lee

 7 Advances and Perspectives in the Study of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles funestus 197 Ibrahima Dia, Moussa Wamdaogo Guelbeogo and Diego Ayala

 8 Highlights on Anopheles nili and Anopheles moucheti, Malaria Vectors in Africa 221 Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio and Frédéric Simard

 9 The Dominant Mosquito Vectors of Human Malaria in India 239 Vas Dev and Vinod P. Sharma

 10 Vector Biology and Malaria Transmission in Southeast Asia 273 Wannapa Suwonkerd, Wanapa Ritthison, Chung Thuy Ngo, Krajana Tainchum, Michael J. Bangs and Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap

 11 Understanding Anopheles Diversity in Southeast Asia and Its Applications for Malaria Control 327 Katy Morgan, Pradya Somboon and Catherine Walton

 12 The Systematics and Bionomics of Malaria Vectors in the Southwest Pacific 357 Nigel W. Beebe, Tanya L. Russell, Thomas R. Burkot, Neil F. Lobo and Robert D. Cooper


Section 3 Ecology and Spatial Surveillance .


 13 Ecology of Larval Habitats 397 Eliška Rejmánková, John Grieco, Nicole Achee and Donald R. Roberts

 14 From Anopheles to Spatial Surveillance: A Roadmap Through a Multidisciplinary Challenge 447 Valérie Obsomer, Nicolas Titeux, Christelle Vancustem, Grégory Duveiller, Jean-François Pekel, Steve Connor, Pietro Ceccato and Marc Coosemans


Section 4 Pathogen Transmission and Influencing Factors .


 15 Simian Malaria Parasites: Special Emphasis on Plasmodium knowlesi and Their Anopheles
Vectors in Southeast Asia 487 Indra Vythilingam and Jeffery Hii

 16 Thermal Stress and Thermoregulation During Feeding in Mosquitoes 511 Chloé Lahondère and Claudio R. Lazzari

 17 The Anopheles Mosquito Microbiota and Their Impact on Pathogen Transmission 525 Mathilde Gendrin and George K. Christophides

 18 Bacterial Biodiversity in Midguts of Anopheles Mosquitoes, Malaria Vectors in Southeast Asia 549 Sylvie Manguin, Chung Thuy Ngo, Krajana Tainchum, Waraporn Juntarajumnong, Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap, Anne-Laure Michon and Estelle Jumas-Bilak


Section 5 Vector Control: Current Situation, New Approaches and Perspectives .


 19 Distribution, Mechanisms, Impact and Management of Insecticide Resistance in Malaria Vectors: A Pragmatic Review 579 Vincent Corbel and Raphael N’Guessan

 20 Perspectives on Barriers to Control of Anopheles Mosquitoes and Malaria 635 Donald R. Roberts, Richard Tren and Kimberly Hess

 21 Residual Transmission of Malaria: An Old Issue for New Approaches 671 Lies Durnez and Marc Coosemans  

22 Vector Control: Some New Paradigms and Approaches 705 Claire Duchet, Richard Allan and Pierre Carnevale

 23 New Salivary Biomarkers of Human Exposure to Malaria Vector Bites 755 Papa M. Drame, Anne Poinsignon, Alexandra Marie, Herbert Noukpo, Souleymane Doucoure, Sylvie Cornelie and Franck Remoue

 24 Transgenic Mosquitoes for Malaria Control: From the Bench to the Public Opinion Survey 797 Christophe Boëte and Uli Beisel .




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