Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Luca Bonfanti .

428 pages .
Open Access .
ISBN 978-953-51-1069-9 .

During the last two decades stem cell biology has changed the field of basic research in life science as well as our perspective of its possible outcomes in medicine. At the beginning of the nineties, the discovery of neural stem cells in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) made the generation of new neurons a real biological process occurring in the adult brain. Since then, a vast community of neuroscientists started to think in terms of regenerative medicine as a possible solution for incurable CNS diseases, such as traumatic injuries, stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. Nevertheless, in spite of the remarkable expansion of the field, the development of techniques to image neurogenesis in vivo, sophisticated in vitro stem cell cultures, and experimental transplantation techniques, no efficacious therapies capable of restoring CNS structure and functions through cell replacement have been convincingly developed so far.
Deep anatomical, developmental, molecular and functional investigations have shown that new neurons can be generated only within restricted brain regions under the control of specific environmental signals. In the rest of the CNS, many problems arise when stem cells encounter the mature parenchyma, which still behaves as 'dogmatically' static tissue. More recent studies have added an additional level of complexity, specifically in the context of CNS structural plasticity, where stem cells lie within germinal layer-derived neurogenic sites whereas progenitor cells are widespread through the CNS.
Hence, two decades after the seminal discovery of neural stem cells, the real astonishing fact is the occurrence of such cells in a largely nonrenewable tissue. Still, the most intriguing question is which possible functional or evolutionary reasons might justify such oddity. 
In other self-renewing tissues, such as skin, cornea, and blood, the role of stem cells in the tissue homeostasis is largely known and efficacious stem cell therapies are already available. The most urgent question is whether and how the potential of neural stem cells could be exploited within the harsh territory of the mammalian CNS. In this case, unlike other tissues, more intense and time-consuming basic research is required before achieving a regenerative outcome.
The road of such research should travel through a better knowledge of several aspects which are still poorly understood, including the developmental programs leading to postnatal brain maturation, the heterogeneity of progenitor cells involved, the bystander effect that stem cell grafts exert even in the absence of cell replacement, and the cohort of stem cell-to-tissue interactions occurring both in homeostatic and pathological conditions.
In this book, the experience and expertise of many leaders in neural stem cell research are gathered with the aim of making the point on a number of extremely promising, yet unresolved, issues.

Luca Bonfanti DVM, PhD
Dept. of Veterinary Sciences, University of Turin
Neuroscience Institute Cavalieri-Ottolenghi (NICO)


Section 1 Neural Stem Cells as Progenitor Cells .

 1 Systems for ex-vivo Isolation and Culturing of Neural Stem Cells 3 Simona Casarosa, Jacopo Zasso and Luciano Conti

 2 Neural Stem Cell Heterogeneity 29 Verdon Taylor

 3 Diversity of Neural Stem/Progenitor Populations: Varieties by Age, Regional Origin and Environment 45 Emília Madarász

 4 Reactive Muller Glia as Potential Retinal Progenitors 73 Teri L. Belecky-Adams, Ellen C. Chernoff, Jonathan M. Wilson and Subramanian Dharmarajan

 5 Neural Stem Cell: Tools to Unravel Pathogenetic Mechanisms and to Test Novel Drugs for CNS Diseases 119 Luca Colucci-D'Amato and MariaTeresa Gentile

Section 2 Neural Stem Cells and Neurogenesis .

 6 Postnatal Neurogenesis in the Subventricular Zone: A Manipulable Source for CNS Plasticity and Repair 137 Manavendra Pathania and Angelique Bordey

 7 Modulation of Adult Neurogenesis by the Nitric Oxide System 163 Bruno P. Carreira, Ana I. Santos, Caetana M. Carvalho and Inês M. Araújo

 8 A Vascular Perspective on Neurogenesis 199 Joshua S. Goldberg and Karen K. Hirschi

 9 Parenchymal Neuro-Glio-Genesis Versus Germinal Layer- Derived Neurogenesis: Two Faces of Central Nervous System Structural Plasticity 241 Luca Bonfanti, Giovanna Ponti, Federico Luzzati, Paola Crociara, Roberta Parolisi and Maria Armentano

Section 3 Neural Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine .

 10 A Survey of the Molecular Basis for the Generation of Functional Dopaminergic Neurons from Pluripotent Stem Cells: Insights from Regenerative Biology and Regenerative Medicine 271 Kaneyasu Nishimura, Yoshihisa Kitamura, Kiyokazu Agata and Jun Takahashi

 11 Systemic Neural Stem Cell-Based Therapeutic Interventions for Inflammatory CNS Disorders 287 Matteo Donegà, Elena Giusto, Chiara Cossetti and Stefano Pluchino

 12 Cell Adhesion Molecules in Neural Stem Cell and Stem Cell- Based Therapy for Neural Disorders 349 Shan Bian

 13 Neuroinflammation on the Epigenetics of Neural Stem Cells 381 Nando Dulal Das and Young Gyu Chai

 14 Primary Neural Stem Cell Cultures from Adult Pig Brain and Their Nerve-Regenerating Properties: Novel Strategies for Cell Therapy 397 Olivier Liard and Emmanuel Moyse

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Published by: Unknown - Tuesday, August 13, 2013


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