Open Access Medical Books


Apoptosis or Active Cell Death

Edited by Justine Rudner .

202 pages .
Open Access .
ISBN 978-953-51-1133-7 .

The development of the mammary gland occurs in four distinct phases: embryogenesis, puberty, pregnancy, and a post-lactational phase involving profound levels of cell death and tissue remodeling. This post-lactational phase is termed post-lactational involution. During embryogenesis, a solid epithelial bud is generated in the embryonic ectoderm. As this bud continues to grow in cell number, the epithelial bud invaginates into the underlying mesenchyme forming the nascent mammary epithelium. The mammary epithelium grows as solid epithelial cords, lengthening distally and branching to form the rudimentary epithelial network. At puberty, ductal elongation continues in a proximal-to-distal direction, and side branches appear along the ducts. The side branches also lengthen distally, and continue to branch. This pattern of distal growth and branching fills the mouse mammary fat pad with an extensively branched epithelium by the end of puberty [6]. Similar to what is seen during embryonic mammary development and patterning, the mammary ducts developing during puberty originally appear in solid epithelial cords. Apoptosis canalizes the luminal space within the ducts, allowing a patent conduit for milk to traverse through the breast epithelium [1, 7]. Ultimately, the rodent mammary epithelium is comprised of a continuous, branching network leading from the nipple to primary ducts and smaller ductules that terminate in terminal end buds (TEBs), blunt ends or alveoli. The inner luminal cells are separated from the basement membrane by an outer myoepithelial layer.
Myoepithelial cells secrete basement membrane components to which the epithelium attaches, and that physically separates the epithelium from the stromal compartment.
Many morphological similarities exist between the mouse mammary gland and the human breast, although some distinctions exist. In the human breast, the cluster of epithelial acini arising from a single terminal duct, referred to as the terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU), is thought to be the milk-producing unit of the mammary gland. Therefore, the post-pubertal human breast harbors cells capable of milk production even in the absence of pregnancy whereas the rodent mammary gland does not. However, profound expansion and differentiation of the TDLU population in the human breast is still required in order to render lactation successful ......


 1 Apoptosis and Clearance of the Secretory Mammary Epithelium 1 Jamie C. Stanford and Rebecca S. Cook

 2 Neuronal Apoptosis in HIV-1-Associated Central Nervous Diseases and Neuropathic Pain 29 Mona Desai, Ningjie Hu, Daniel Byrd and Qigui Yu

 3 Translational Control in Tumour Progression and Drug Resistance 51 Carmen Sanges, Nunzia Migliaccio, Paolo Arcari and Annalisa Lamberti

 4 Apoptosis and Activation-Induced Cell Death 73 JoaquĆ­n H. Patarroyo S. and Marlene I. Vargas V.

 5 Extra-Telomeric Effects of Telomerase (hTERT) in Cell Death 95 Gregory Lucien Bellot and Xueying Wang

 6 Apoptosis During Cellular Pattern Formation 113 Masahiko Takemura and Takashi Adachi-Yamada

 7 Programmed Cell Death in T Cell Development 125 Qian Nancy Hu and Troy A. Baldwin

 8 Drug Resistance and Molecular Cancer Therapy: Apoptosis Versus Autophagy 155 Rebecca T. Marquez, Bryan W. Tsao, Nicholas F. Faust and Liang Xu .

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